American MonoplanesAmerican Roundel

Loening M-8

Loening M-8 - 1918
Loening M-8 - 1918

The Leoning M-8 was a 1910s American fighter monoplane designed by Grover Loening and built by his Loening Aeronautical Engineering Company. An order of 5000 for the United States Army Air Corps was canceled when the First World War ended.

The first design by Grover Loening after he had formed his company was a two-seat braced-wing monoplane fighter the M-8. It had a fixed tailskid landing gear and was powered by a nose-mounted Hispano-Suiza engine with a tractor propeller. The pilot and gunner had tandem open cockpits.

The first aircraft was flown in 1918 and after testing the United States Army Air Corps ordered 5000 aircraft to be built. Only two aircraft were delivered to the Army and one to the United States Navy with the designation M-8-0.

At the end of the war the order was canceled. The Navy ordered 46 aircraft in two variants for use as observation aircraft. The Navy also ordered six M-8-S twin-float seaplane versions. A single-seat version was developed for the Army as the Loening PW-2.

Loening M-8-0
  • Role: Monoplane fighter
  • Manufacturer: Loening Aeronautical Engineering
  • National Origin: United States
  • Designed by: Grover Loening
  • First flight: 1918
  • Primary users:
    • United States Navy
    • United States Army Air Corps
  • Number built: 55
    • Variants:
    • M-8 Production variant for the United States Army Air Corps, two prototypes, 5000 cancelled.
    • M-8-0 One M-8 for evaluation by the United States Navy.
    • M-8-0 Production version for the United States Navy, 10 built.
    • M-8-1 Second production variant for the United States Navy, 36 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory.
    • M-8-S Seaplane variant for the United States Navy, six built.
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza V-8 engine, 300 hp (224 kW)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 0 in (10.67 m)
  • Length: 21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)
  • Gross weight: 2068 lb (938 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 145 mph (233 km/h)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: Twin 0.3in (7.62mm) Lewis machine guns

References

  1. Loening M-8. (2011, January 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:16, January 18, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Loening_M-8&oldid=408358502
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions.
  3. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing. pp. 2376.

Austrian MonoplanesAustrian Cross

Aviatik (Berg) 30.40

Aviatik-Berg 30.40- 1918
Aviatik-Berg 30.40- 1918

Österreichische-Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik designer Julius von Berg was working on a new lighter type of Aviatik fighter departing from their previous reliance on the heavier Austro-Daimler inline engine. The first attempt was the unsuccessful type 30.27 and 30.29 biplanes. The Aviatik-Berg 30.40 was a parasol monoplane derivative of the Aviatik 30.27. In fact many of the components came from the surviving 30.27 airframes. The prototype was built and flown during the summer of 1918. Only one example of the aircraft was built.

The Aviatik 30.40 was was a fairly standard wooden construction. The forward fuselage was covered by light metal panels and the remainder of the fuselage was skinned with plywood. The wing had fabric skinning, and steel-tube bracing struts were employed. The power for the Aviatik 30.40 was provided by a similar 160hp Steyr Le Rhone 11-cylinder rotary engine. Armament would have consisted of the standard twin synchronized fixed forward-firing 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine guns

Aviatik (Berg) 30.40
  • Type:Experimental Monoplane Fighter
  • National Origin: Austria-Hungary
  • Manufacturer: Österreichische-Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik
  • First Flight: 1918
  • Number Built: 1
  • Status: Prototype only
  • Power Plant: 1 × Steyr Le Rhone 11 cylinder air cooled rotary engine 160 hp (119 kW)
  • Wing Span: 23.95 ft (7.3 m)
  • Wing Area: 113 ft² (10.5 m²)
  • Length: 17.55 ft (5.35 m)
  • Empty Weight: 807 lb (366 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1292 lb (586 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 119 mph (192 km/hr)
  • Climb:
    • 3,265 ft (1000 m) 1.5 min
    • 6,560 ft (2000 m) 2.83 min
    • 9,840 ft (3000 m) 6.83 min
    • 13,120 ft (4000 m)10 min
    • 16,325 ft (5000 m) 16.83 min
    • 19680 ft (6000 m) 22 min
  • Crew: 1
  • Proposed Armament: 2 × Synchronised fixed forward-firing 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine guns

References

  1. Aviatik (Berg) 30.40 1918 Retreived Sept 3. 08:45 from http://flyingmachines.ru/Site2/Crafts/Craft25508.htm
  2. Aviatik (Berg) 30.40 1918 Virtual Aircraft Museum Retreived Sept 3. 09:05 from http://www.aviastar.org/air/austria/aviatik_30-40.php
  3. Aviatik Berg Scout The Aerodrome Forum Retreived Sept 3. 09:15 from http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/aircraft/1997-aviatik-berg-scout.html
  4. Grosz,Peter M. Haddow, George. Schiemer, Peter. Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One p.156-157. Flying Machines Press, 1993. ISBN 0963711008,

British MonoplanesBritish Roundel

Bristol M1C

Bristol M1c
Bristol M1C - 1916

The Bristol M1C was a well designed and effective aircraft that was not given a real chance to show it's true potential. The M1C had a maximum speed aproximately 30-50 mph (50-80 km/h) faster than any of the contemporary German Fokker Eindecker monoplanes.

The M.1A prototype was designed by Frank Barnwell in 1916 and built as a private venture by the Bristol Aeroplane Corporation. The War Office ordered four aircraft for evaluation - designated M.1B - which had a single 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun mounted on the port wing and a clear-view cut-out in the starboard wing to give the pilot more downward visibility.
[Read more]

Bristol M.1C Bullet
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Bristol Aeroplane Company
  • Designed by: Frank Barnwell
  • First Flight: 14 July 1916
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Number Built: 130
  • Powerplant: 1× Le Rhône 9J rotary engine, 110 hp. (82 kW)
  • Wingspan: 30 ft 9 in (9.37 m)
  • Wing Area: 145 ft² (13.6 m²)
  • Length: 20 ft 5 in (6.24 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 9 in (2.37 m)
  • Empty Weight: 900 lb (409 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,348 lb (611 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 113 knots (130 mph, 209 km/h) at sea level
  • Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,096 m)
  • Endurance: 1 hr 45 mins
  • Crew: one, pilot
  • Armament: 1 × fixed-forward 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Bristol M.1C Bullet, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_M.1"
  2. Barnes, C.H. (1964). "Bristol Aircraft Since 1910" (First Edition ed.). London: Putnam.
  3. Jackson, Robert, "The Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft", Paragon, 2002. ISBN 0-75258-130-9

Sopwith Swallow

Sopwith Swallow
Sopwith Swallow - 1918

The Sopwith Swallow single-seat fighter monoplane was basicly an F.1 Camel fuselage built by Boulton & Paul, which Harry Hawker mated with a parasol wing. The Swallow was powered by a 110hp (82 kW) Le Rhone 9J air-cooled nine-cylinder rotary engine and carried the standard armament of twin 0.303 in (7.7 mm) fixed forward-firing, synchronised Vickers machine guns.

Flown for the first time in September 1918, the Swallow (serial number B9276) was delivered to Martlesham Heath for official trials by the RFC on October 29, 1918, remaining there until May 1919. The prototype had several fuel system problems which delayed the trials until after the war ended. The lackluter performance of the Swallow during the trails at Martlesham convinced the Royal Flying Corps that the design did not warrant further development, and the prototype was scrapped.

Sopwith Swallow
  • Type: Monoplane Fighter
  • Built By: Boulton & Paul
  • Converted By: Harry Hawker
  • First Flight: September 1918
  • Flight Trails: October 29, 1918-May 1919
  • Based On: F.1 Sopwith Camel
  • Number Built: 1
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhone 9J nine-cylinder rotary engine, 110hp (82 kW)
  • Wingspan: 29 ft 10 in (8.79 m)
  • Wing Area: 159.95 ft² (14.86 m²)
  • Length: 19 ft 9 in (5.72 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 2 in (3.10 m)
  • Empty Weight: 403 kg 888 lb
  • Take-off Weight: 1420 lb (644 kg)
  • Max. Speed: 182 km/h 113 mph
  • Crew: One
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) fixed forward-firing, synchronised Vickers machine guns

References

  1. Virtual Aircraft Museum Sopwith Swallow 1918 : "http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/sopwith_swallow.php"
  2. The-Blueprints.com, Sopwith Swallow 1918 "http://www.the-blueprints.com/.../ww1.../sopwith_swallow_1918"
  3. "Windsock Datafile Specials" Volume 14 No. 4 - July/Aug 1998 Albatros Productions "http://www.windsockdatafilespecials.co.uk/volume-14-no-4---julyaug-1998-62-p.asp"

French MonoplanesFrench Roundel

Blériot XI

Blériot XI - 1914
Blériot XI - 1914

At the outbreak of war,the British Royal Flying Corps (RFC) brought twenty-three Blériot XI's with them into France along with its expeditionary force; they served as reconnossaince aircraft with six RFC squadrons. The French Service de l'Aviation also furnished Bleriots to eight of their escadrilles, and Italy went into action with their own previously acquired Blériot XI's in six squadrons.

Blériot XI
  • Wingspan: 34 ft. 10 in.
  • Length: 38 ft.
  • Weight: 816 lbs.
  • Powerplant: 1× Gnome air cooled 7 cylinder radial, 50 hp (37 kW)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: none

References

  1. Munson, Kenneth - "Bombers, Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1914 - 1919" ISBN 0 7537 0918 X
  2. Crouch, Tom D. "Blériot XI: The Story of a Classic Aircraft". Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982.
  3. "Blériot XI 1911" AVIA book Original french book with characteristics and specifications

Morane-Saulnier H

Morane-Saulnier H
Morane-Saulnier H - 1913

The Morane-Saulnier H was a sport aircraft produced in France in the years before the First World War, a single-seat derivative of the successful Morane-Saulnier G with a slightly reduced wingspan[ Like the Type G, it was a successful sporting type in its day.

During the second international aero meet, held at Wiener Neustadt in June 1913, Roland Garros won the precision landing prize in a Type H.

The French Army ordered a batch of 26 aircraft, and the British Royal Flying Corps also acquired a small number, these latter machines purchased from Grahame-White, who was manufacturing the type in the UK under licence. The French machines saw limited service in the opening stages of World War I, with pilots engaging in aerial combat using revolvers and carbines.

The type was also produced under licence in Germany by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke, who built it as the E.I, E.II, E.IV, E.V, and E.VI, with increasingly powerful engines. These were armed with a single, synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun.

Morane-Saulnier H
  • Type: Sport aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Morane-Saulnier
  • First flight: 1913
  • Operators:
  • Variants
    • Pfalz-built versions
    • E.I - with Oberursel U.0 rotary engine (60 built)
    • E.II - with Oberursel U.I rotary engine
    • E.IV - with Oberursel U.III rotary engine (ca. 24 built)
    • E.V - with Mercedes D.I water-cooled, inline engine
    • E.VI - with Oberursel U.I engine, lengthened fuselage, enlarged tail fin and additional bracing (20 built)
  • France: Aéronautique Militaire
  • Austria-Hungary: Austro-Hungarian Navy - (Pfalz-built versions)
  • Germany: Luftstreitkräfte - (Pfalz-built versions)
  • Portugal: One aircraft only.
  • United Kingdom: Royal Flying Corps
  • Length: 5.84 m (19 ft 2 in)
  • Wingspan: 9.12 m (29 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 2.26 m (7 ft 5 in)
  • Empty weight: 188 kg (415 lb)
  • Gross weight: 444 kg (979 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9C, 60 kW (80 hp)
  • Maximum speed: 120 km/h (75 mph)
  • Range: 177 km (111 miles)
  • Crew: One pilot

References

  1. "Morane-Saulnier H". (2010, September 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:55, September 24, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morane-Saulnier_H&oldid=385618616
  2. "Schneider et hydravions anciens/Dossiers historiques hydravions et moteurs". http://www.hydroretro.net/etudegh/moranesaulnierhydro.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  3. "Morane-Saulnier Type H". flugzeuginfo.net. http://www.flugzeuginfo.net/acdata_php/acdata_morane_h_en.php. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  4. Grosz, P.M. (1996). "Pfalz E.I-E.VI". Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire: Albatros Publications.
  5. Hartmann, Gérard (2001). "L'incroyable Morane-Saulnier hydro". La Coupe
  6. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft". London: Aerospace Publishing.
  7. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.

Morane-Saulnier L

Morane-Saulnier L
Morane-Saulnier L - 1913

A "parasol" monoplane, the Morane Type L was a fragile two-seat reconnaissance aircraft. It was the first aircraft armed with a fixed machine gun that fired through the propellor arc. Bullets which struck the propellor were deflected by steel plates. Armed with a Hotchkiss machine gun firing 8 mm solid copper bullets, Roland Garros tested the design in April 1915. He scored three victories in three weeks before the plane was captured by the Germans.

Morane-Saulnier L
  • Type: Fighter Reconnaissance
  • Manufacturer: Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier
  • First Introduced: 1913
  • Number Built: 600
  • Powerplant: Gnome, air-cooled 7 cylinder rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wing Span: 36 ft 9 in 11.2 m
  • Length: 22 ft 6.75 in 6.88 m
  • Height: 12 ft 10.5 in 3.93 m
  • Wing Area: 290 ft² (27.00 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 385 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 1,441 lb 655 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 71.5 mph 115 kmh
  • Service Ceiling: 13,123 ft 4000 m
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours
  • Crew: 1 or 2
  • Armament: 1 machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Morane-Saulnier L, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morane-Saulnier_L"
  2. Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. "The Complete Book of Fighters". New York: Smithmark, 1994, p.413. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft". London: Aerospace Publishing, p.2698.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions, p. 684.
  5. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London: Putnam, Fourth edition, 1978, p.258. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  6. Nicolle, David "The Ottoman Army 1914-1918" (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1994), p.9

Morane Saulnier N

Morane Saulnier N
Morane Saulnier N - 1914

Due to the shape of its nose, the Morane-Saulnier Type N was aptly nicknamed the “Bullet”. Built in small numbers, it was the first French aircraft specifically developed as a fighter. Armed with a fixed, forward firing machine gun, its propeller was protected by the metal deflector plates pioneered by Roland Garros on the Morane-Saulnier Type L. Although it was faster and more maneuverable than previous aircraft, the Bullet was extremely difficult to fly and unpopular with pilots.

Morane Saulnier N
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier
  • First Introduced: 1914
  • Number Built: 49
  • Powerplant: Le Rhône 9C, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 8.5 in 8.15 m
  • Length: 19 ft 1.5 in 5.83 m
  • Height: 7 ft 4.5 in 2.25 m
  • Loaded Weight: 976 lb 444 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 90 mph 144 km/h
  • Service Ceiling: 13,123 ft 4000 m
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Morane-Saulnier N, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morane-Saulnier_N"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "War Planes of the First World War: Fighters: Volume Five". London:Macdonald, 1972, p.86. ISBN 356 0779 7.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Bullets and the Guns". Air Enthusiast. Issue Nine, February-May 1979. Bromley, Kent: Pilot Press, 1979. Pages 61-75.

Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35

Morane Saulnier MS.35 - 1915
Morane Saulnier MS.35 - 1915

First flown in 1915, the AR was a two-seat parasol-wing monoplane constructed largely of wood with fabric covering. About 400 were built after World War I (when it was known as the MS.35), mainly as intermediate trainers in three principal versions: MS.35R with a 59.6kW Le Rhone 9c rotary engine; MS.35A with an Anzani engine; and MS.35C with a Clerget 9B engine. The MS.35EP2 served with French Aeronautique Militaire 'Ecoles de Pilotage' up to 1929. Other military users were Poland (60), Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Guatemala, Romania, Soviet Union (30) and Turkey. A number also went to civil users.

Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35
  • Role: Two-seat Parasol Monoplane Trainer
  • Manufacturer: Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Retired: 1929
  • Number Built: over 500
  • Primary Operater: French Aeronautique Militaire "Ecoles de Pilotage"
  • Powerplants:
    • MS.35A: 1 × Anzani 10, air-cooled 10 cylinder radial engine 90 - 100 hp (75 kW)
    • MS.35C: 1 × Clerget 9B, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 130 hp (97 kW)
    • MS.35R: 1 × Le Rhône 9C, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 9 in (10.6 m)
  • Wing Area:193.75 ft³ (18.0 m²)
  • Length: 22 ft 4 in (6.8 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 10 in (3.6 m)
  • Take-off Weight:1543 lb (700 kg)
  • Empty Weight: 992 lb (450 kg)
  • Max. Speed: 84 mph (135 km/h)
  • Cruise Speed: 75 mph (120 km/h)
  • Ceiling: 15100 ft (4600 m)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: None

References

  1. Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35 1915 Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 05:20, October 21, 2011, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/france/morane_ms-35.php

Morane-Saulnier Type AI

Morane-Saulnier Type AI - 1917
Morane-Saulnier Type AI - 1917

The Morane-Saulnier Type AI was a French parasol-wing fighter aircraft produced by Morane-Saulnier during World War I, to replace the obsolete Morane-Saulnier Type N. Its engine was mounted in a circular open-front cowling. The parasol wing was swept back. The spars and ribs of the circular section fuselage were wood, wire-braced and covered in fabric. The production aircraft were given service designations based on whether they had 1 gun (designated MoS 27) or 2 guns (designated MoS 29).
[Read more]

Morane-Saulnier AI
  • Type: fighter/trainer
  • Country: France
  • Manufacturer: Morane-Saulnier
  • First Flight: August 1917
  • Primary User: French Air Force
  • Number Built: 1210
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Monosoupape 9Nb, 9-cylinder rotary 150 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 27 ft 11 in (8.51 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 6.2 in (5.65 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 10.5 in (2.40 m)
  • Empty Weight: 912 lb (414 kg)
  • Gross Weight: 1,486 lb (674 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 137 mph (221 km/h)
  • Endurance: 1 hours 45 min
  • Service Ceiling: 7000 m (22,965 ft)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 or 2 ×0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun foward of cockpit

References

  1. Donald, David, ed (1997)."The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft". Prospero Books. pp. pg 659. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  2. Holmes, Tony (2005). "Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide". London: Harper Collins. pp. 36. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  3. Lamberton, W.M. (1960). "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Herts: Harleyford Publications Ltd.. pp. 84-85.

German MonoplanesGerman Cross

Taube

Taube
Gotha Taube - 1914

Developed in 1910 by Igor Etrich, the German Taube (dove) was built in large numbers by various manufacturers. It derived its name from the unique structure and shape of its wings. A slow, unarmed, two-seater monoplane, it entered service in the first year of the war and was used for observation and reconnaissance until 1916.

Taube
  • Manufacturer:
    • Albatros Werke GmbH
    • Deutsch Flugzeug-Werke GmbH
    • Gothaer Waggonfabrik AG
    • Luftfahrzeug GmbH
    • Rumpler Flugzeugwerk GmbH
  • Type: Reconnaissance
  • Entered Service: 1914
  • Powerplant: Mercedes D.I, 6 cylinder, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wing Span: 47 ft 7 in (14.5 m)
  • Length: 32 ft 10 in (10 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,257 lb (1,086 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 60 mph (96 km/h)
  • Endurance: 4 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: None

Fokker Eindecker

Fokker E.II - 1915
Fokker E.II Eindecker - 1915

Max Immelmann scored his first victory flying the “Eindecker.” Scourge of the air during the winter of 1915, the Fokker E.I was the first aircraft armed with a synchronized, forward firing machine gun. German pilots were ordered not to fly it across enemy lines for fear the Allies would capture the secrets of the synchronizing gear. Followed by the E.II, E.III and E.IV, the Eindecker was underpowered and slow but could out turn most of its opponents. Allied aviators who faced it called themselves “Fokker Fodder” The Eindecker ruled the skies until the Nieuports and SPADs were developed.

Fokker Eindecker
  • Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke GmbH
  • Type: Fighter
  • First Introduced: 1915
  • Engine: Oberursel U.I, 9 cylinder, rotary, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Length: 23 ft 7.5 in ( 7.2 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 1.75 in (399 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1342 lb (610 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 88 mph (140 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 11,500 ft (4100 m)
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 or 2 × syncronised fixed forward-firing Spandau machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Fokker Eindecker, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokker_Eindecker"
  2. Boyne, Walter J. The Smithsonian Book of Flight for Young People. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1988. ISBN 0-689-31422-1.
  3. Dierikx, Marc. Fokker: A Transatlantic Biography. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997, p. 31. ISBN 1-56098-735-9.
  4. Grosz, Peter M. Fokker E I/II (Windsock Datafile No. 91). Berkhamsted, Herts, UK: Albatros Publications, 2002, pp. 6-8. ISBN 1-90220-746-7.
  5. Grosz, Peter M. Fokker E III (Windsock Datafile No. 15). Berkhamsted, Herts, UK: Albatros Publications, 1989. ISBN 0-94841-419-7.
  6. Jarrett, Phillip. "Database: The Fokker Eindeckers". Aeroplane Monthly, December 2004.
  7. Van Wyngarden, Greg. Early German Aces of World War I (Osprey Aircraft of the Aces 73), Botley, Oxfordshire, UK: Osprey Publishing Ltd, 2006, p. 9. ISBN 1-84176-997-5.

Fokker E.V - D.VIII

Fokker D.VIII-E.V, Jasta 6, Pilot and Serial number unknown. Busigny-Escaufort, France, August, 1918.
Fokker E.V - D.VIII - 1918

Winner of the April 1918 fighter competition, the Fokker D.VIII monoplane was delayed by production problems. Only thirty six of them entered service during the last weeks of the war. Equipped with an underpowered engine, the D.VIII was nevertheless an excellent fighter eagerly received by the German air service. Dubbed the “Flying Razor” by Allied pilots, it had the distinction of scoring the last aerial victory of the war.

Fokker E.V - D.VIII
  • Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke GmbH
  • Type: Fighter
  • First Introduced: 1918
  • Number Built: About 290
  • Engine: Oberursel UR-II, 9 cylinder rotary, 110 hp. (82 kW)
  • Wing Span: 27 ft 6.75 in (8.40 m)
  • Length: 19 ft 4 in (5.86 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 3 in (2.82 m)
  • Empty Weight: 384 kg (848 lb)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,238 lb
  • Maximum Speed: 127 mph (204 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 20,670 ft (6,300 m)
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: × Spandau 7.92 mm machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Fokker D.VIII, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokker_D.VIII"
  2. Connors, John F., "Fokker's Flying Razors", Wings, Granada Hills, California, August 1974, Volume 4, Number 4, pages 45, 48.
  3. Weyl, A.R. "Fokker: The Creative Years". 1988. ISBN 0-851778-17-8.

Junkers CL.I

Junkers Cl.I - 1918
Junkers Cl.I - 1918
Junkers Cl.I - 1918
Junkers CLS.I

The Junkers CL.I was a ground-attack monoplaine aircraft developed in Germany during World War I. Its construction was undertaken by Junkers under the designation J 8. as proof of Hugo Junkers' belief in the monoplane, after his firm had been required by the Idflieg to submit a biplane (the J 4) as its entry in a competition to select a ground-attack aircraft.
[Read more]

Junkers CL.I
  • Type: Ground-attack aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Junkers
  • First flight: December 10, 1917
  • Entered Service: 1918
  • Number built: 5
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IIIa, water cooled 6-cylinder in-line, 180 hp (134 kW)
  • Wingspan: 39 ft 6 in (12.04 m)
  • Length: 25 ft 11 in (7.90 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 8¼ in (2.65 m)
  • Wing area: 253 ft² (23.4 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 1,562 lb (710 kg)
  • Loaded Weight 2,310 lb (1,050 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 100 mph (161 km/h)
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Service Ceiling: 19,700 ft (6,000 m)
  • Crew: Two, pilot and gunner
  • Armament:
    • 2 × fixed, forward-firing machine guns
    • 1 × trainable, rearward-firing machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Junkers CL.I "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_CL.I"
  2. Green, W; Swanborough, G (1994). The Complete Book of Fighters. New York: Smithmark. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  3. Gray, Peter; Thetford, Owen (1962). German Aircraft of the First World War. London: Putnam.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 536.
  5. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 897 Sheet 01.

Junkers D.I

 Junkers D.I - 1918
Junkers D.I - 1918

What really set the Junker D.I apart from any previous aircraft was it's cantilevered low-wing design and corrugated duralumin skin. Duralumin, the same metal used for Zeppelin construction, was light yet strong. The Junkers monoplane was rugid, fast, and agile. The D.I was every fighter pilots' dream. The design was a decade ahead of its time appearing a year too late.

Junkers D.I
  • Manufacturer: Junkers-Fokker Flugzeugwerke AG.
  • Type: Fighter
  • First Introduced: 1918
  • Powerplant: BMW IIIa, 6 cylinder, in-line, 185 hp. (138 kW)
  • Wingspan: 29 ft 6.3 in (9.00 m
  • Length: 23 ft 9.4 in (7.25 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 6 in (2.60 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,438 lb (654 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,834 lb (834 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 140 mph (225 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 19,700 ft (6,000 m)
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: × Spandau 7.92 mm machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Junkers D.I, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_D.I"
  2. Kay, Anthony L. "Junkers Aircraft and engines 1913-1945" p. 28 (2004). London: Putnam Aeronautical Books ISBN 0 85177 985 9
  3. Grosz, Peter; Terry, Gerard (1984). "The Way to the World's First All-Metal Fighter". Air Enthusiast 25 (August - November 1984): Pages 60-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  4. Holmes, Tony (2005). "Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide". London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  5. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 536.
  6. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 898 Sheet 1.

Pfalz A.I, A.II, E.III

Pfalz A.Ib - 1915
Pfalz A.I

The Pfalz A.I and A.II unarmed scouts were copies of the Morane-Saulnier L produced under licence in Germany by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke early in the First World War.

The A.1 was a was a fragile parasol wing airplane. The armed E.III varient became one of the first successful fighter aircraft when it was fitted with a single machine gun that fired through the arc of the propeller which was protected by armored deflector wedges. Its immediate effectiveness in this role launched an arms race of fighter development and the A.I and A.II were quickly rendered obsolete. The A.I used wing warping for lateral control.

Three Pfalz AII's were utilized by the Ottoman Empire in an attempt to combat the growing threat of the Arab Revolt.

Pfalz A.I
  • Role: Unarmed Scout, Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Pfalz Flugzeugwerke
  • Introduced: 1914
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Number Built: Unknown
  • Powerplant:
    • A.I: Oberursel 1 × U.0 air-cooled seven-cylinder, rotary engine, 80 hp (60 kW)
    • A.II: Oberursel U.I 1 × air cooled 9 cylinder, rotary engine, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wingspan: 36 ft 8⅞ in (11.20 m)
  • Wing Area: 197 ft² (18.3 m²)
  • Length: 22 ft 6¾ in (6.88 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 10⅝ in (3.93 m)
  • Empty Weight: 865 lb (393 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,491 lb (677.5 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 68 knots, 78 mph (125 km/h) at sea level
  • Endurance: 4 hr
  • Climb to: 300 ft (1000 m): 8 min
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • A.I, A.2: None
    • E.III: 1 × forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 "Spandau" machine gun

References

  1. "Morane-Saulnier L". (2010, September 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20:03, September 24, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morane-Saulnier_L&oldid=385501128
  2. Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. "The Complete Book of Fighters". New York: Smithmark, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft". London: Aerospace Publishing.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H.. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: 1989 Studio Editions.
  5. David Nicolle, "The Ottoman Army 1914-1918" Oxford: 1994, Osprey Publishing

Pfalz E.I

Pfalz E.I - 1914
Morane-Saulnier H

The Pfalz E.I was a sport aircraft produced under licence in Germany by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke, who built several variants including: the E.I, E.II, E.IV, E.V, and E.VI. The aircraft was armed with a single, synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun. A single-seat derivative of the successful Morane-Saulnier G with a slightly reduced wingspan. Like the Type G, it was a successful sporting type in its day.

Variants

  • E.I - Oberursel U.0 rotary engine (60 built)
  • E.II - Oberursel U.I rotary engine
  • E.IV - Oberursel U.III rotary engine (ca. 24 built)
  • E.V - Mercedes D.I water-cooled, inline engine
  • E.VI - Oberursel U.I engine, lengthened fuselage, enlarged tail fin and additional bracing (20 built)
Pfalz E.I
  • Type: Sport aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Pfalz Flugzeugwerke GmbH
  • First flight: 1913
  • Introduced: 1914
  • Operators:
    • Austria-Hungary: Austro-Hungarian Navy
    • Germany: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: 1 × Oberursel U.0 air-cooled seven-cylinder, rotary engine, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Length: 5.84 m (19 ft 2 in)
  • Wingspan: 9.12 m (29 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 2.26 m (7 ft 5 in)
  • Empty weight: 188 kg (415 lb)
  • Gross weight: 444 kg (979 lb)
  • Maximum speed: 120 km/h (75 mph)
  • Range: 177 km (111 miles)
  • Crew: One pilot
  • Armament: 1 × forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 "Spandau" machine gun

References

  1. "Morane-Saulnier H". (2010, September 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:55, September 24, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morane-Saulnier_H&oldid=385618616
  2. "Schneider et hydravions anciens/Dossiers historiques hydravions et moteurs". http://www.hydroretro.net/etudegh/moranesaulnierhydro.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  3. "Morane-Saulnier Type H". flugzeuginfo.net. http://www.flugzeuginfo.net/acdata_php/acdata_morane_h_en.php. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  4. Grosz, P.M. (1996). "Pfalz E.I-E.VI". Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire: Albatros Publications.
  5. Hartmann, Gérard (2001). "L'incroyable Morane-Saulnier hydro". La Coupe
  6. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft". London: Aerospace Publishing.
  7. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.

Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CS I

 Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CS.I s/n 8502 - 1918
Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CS.I s/n 8502 - 1918
 Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CS.I Front mounted radiator - 1918
Zeppelin-Lindau CS.I Front mounted radiator

This experimental two-seat seaplane was built during 1918. It was of all-metal construction except for the fabric-covered wing and cruciform tail surfaces.

Ailerons were fitted with Flettner-type servos. The machine was fitted with vee-type eight-cylinder Benz engine. Both nose and side radiator installations were tested.

Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CS I
  • Role: Experimental Seaplane
  • Nation of Origin: German Empire
  • Manufacturer: Zeppelin-Werke Lindau GMBH
  • Designed By: Claude Dornier at Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH
  • Number Built: Unknown
  • Status: Prototype Only
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz IIIbo 8 cylinder liquid cooled V engine, 195 hp (145 kW)
  • Wing Span: 43 ft. 2 ⅞ in. (13.18 m.).
  • Wing Area: 322 ft² (29.8 m²).
  • Empty Weight: 2,112 lb (960 kg).
  • Loaded Weight: 3,254 lb (1,479 kg).
  • Speed: 93.75 mph (150 kmh)
  • Crew: Two
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 2 × forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) "Spandau" LMG 08/15 machine guns
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) trainable Parabellum MG14 machine gun for observer

References

  1. Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CS.I(2012, August 10). In Myflyingmachines. Retrieved 22:34, August 11, 2012, from http://flyingmachines.ru/Site2/Crafts/Craft30303.htm
  2. Gray, Peter; Thetford, Owen (1962). German Aircraft of the First World War (First edition ed.). London: Putnam.

Italian MonoplanesItalian Rondel

Caproni Ca.20

Caproni Ca.20 - 1914
Caproni Ca.20 - 1914

The Caproni Ca.20 was one of the first real fighter planes. Only one was build and first flown in early 1914. It was designed as an offensive weapon platform: A monoplane that integrated a movable, forward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis machine gun two feet above the pilot's head, firing over the propeller arc. The gun had a false sight at eye level so that the Ca 20's pilot could aim through the propeller arc at the enemy aircraft while the gun fired from above. Its 110 hp. (82 kW) Le Rhône, 9 cylinder rotary engine gave the plane a top speed of 102 mph and with its streamlined, enclosed spinner inlet, it was one of the best performing planes of its time.

Caproni Ca.20
  • Country: Italy
  • Designer: Giovanni Battista "Gianni" Caproni
  • Manufacturer: Caproni
  • First Flight: 1914
  • Power Plant: 1 × Le Rhône, 9 cylinder rotary engine, 110 hp. (82 kW)
  • Serial Number: 1
  • Wingspan: 26ft (7.92 m)
  • Wing Area: 144ft² (13.38 m²)
  • Length: 27ft (8.36 m)
  • Height: 10ft ( 2.90 m)
  • Empty Weight: 778 lbs (352.90 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 103 miles/h (165.73 km/h)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis machine gun

Russian MonoplanesRussian Rondel

Torpedo, Olkhovskij

Torpedo, Olkhovskij - 1915
Torpedo, Olkhovskij - 1915

The Torpedo was a two-seat fighter with a wooden monocoque fuselage. It was the first such aircraft built in Russia. The aircraft had very clean lines, it's engine was completely covered with a cowling and the propeller was fitted with a large spinner. The design proved to be unsuccessful because the split wing resulted in increased drag and a loss of lift. One plane was built at the Anatra factory in February 1917, and was flown on March 6-20 in Odessa. The aircraft flew well, but it was underpowered. This aircraft was used later as a trainer.

Torpedo, Olkhovskij
  • Type: two-seat fighter
  • National Origin: Russia
  • Designed By: V.M.Olkhovskij
  • Manufacturer: Anatra factory
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Status: Prototype
  • Powerplant: Le Rhône Model J, air-cooled 9 cylinder Rotary (82 kw)
  • Service Ceiling: (5000 m)
  • Climb:
    • 1000m 4.0min
    • 3000m 17.0min
  • Crew: 2
  • Amament: None

References

  1. Shavrov, V.B. "History of aircraft construction in the USSR (Istoriya Konstruktsij Samoletov v SSSR.)". Vol.1 Moskva, Mashinostroenie, 1994. p.199 ISBN 5-217-02528-X