Breguet Br.XIV

Breguet Br.14A2 - 1917
Breguet Br.14A2 - 1917
Breguet Br.14B2 - 1917
Breguet Br.14B2 - 1917

Used throughout the war, the innovative Breguet Br.14 was a highly successful biplane used by the French, Belgian and American air services. Designed by Louis Breguet in 1916, it was one of the first aircraft constructed with duralumin in the airframe.

Rugged and versatile, it was mass produced in several variations, including a seaplane model. Before the end of the war, the Br.14 saw service as a reconnaissance aircraft, a day/night bomber and an air ambulance. This was one of the best bombers the French used. It was produced up until 1926.

Breguet Br.14A2
  • Type: Bomber (B2) and Reconnaissance (A2)
  • Country: France
  • Entered Service: Summer of 1917
  • Number Built: About 5,500 during World War I
  • Powerplant: Renault 12 Fox, water cooled 12 cylinder, 300 hp
  • Wing Span: 47 ft 1.25 in (14.36 m)
  • Length: 29 ft (8.87 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.3 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,892 lb (1,765 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 110 mph (177 km/h) at 6,560 ft (2,000 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 19,030 ft (5,800 m)
  • Endurance: 2 ¾ hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2-3 machine guns
    • Bombs: 661 lb (300 kg) of bombs

References

  1. Breguet Bre.4. (2011, January 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:25, January 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Breguet_Bre.4&oldid=406067608
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 202.
  3. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 890 Sheets 78-79.

Caudron R 11

Caudron R 11 - 1917
Caudron R 11

The Caudron R.11 was first used as a bomber and then used as an escort at the end of the war. This was the last bomber the French built during the war.

The R.11 was originally intended to fulfill the French Corps d'Armee reconnaissance category. Its design was similar to the Caudron R.4, but with a more pointed nose, two bracing bays outboard the engines rather than three, no nose-wheel, and a much larger tail. The engines were housed in streamlined nacelles just above the lower wing.

The French army ordered 1000 R.11s. Production began in 1917, with the first aircraft completed late in that year. In February 1918 the first Escadrille (squadron) R.26 was equipped. The last escadrille to form before the Armistice (and production ended abruptly) was R.246, at which point 370 planes had been completed.

Caudron R 11
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Caudron
  • Designed by: Paul Deville
  • First flight: 1917
  • Number Built: 370
  • Wingspan: 58 ft 9.5 in (17.92 m)
  • Length: 36 ft 11 in (8.5 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 2.25 in (2.8 m)
  • Wing Area: 5583.96 ft² (84.25 m²)
  • Empty weight: 3135 lb (1422 kg)
  • Loaded Weight 4777 lb (2167 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Hispano-Suiza 8Bba water cooled inline piston, 215 hp (160 kW) each each
  • Maximum speed: 114 mph (183 km/h)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Service Ceiling: 19520 ft (5950 m)
  • Crew: 3
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 5 machine guns
    • Bombs: 265 lb of bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Caudron R.11, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caudron_R.11"
  2. Donald, David, ed (1997). "The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft". Prospero Books. pp. pg 235. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  3. Green, W; Swanborough, G (1994). "The Complete Book of Fighters". New York: Smithmark. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.

Dorand AR.1

Dorand AR.1
Dorand AR.1

The Dorand AR.1 was a French two-seater reconnaissance biplane aircraft used by the French Air Force, Serbian Aviation, and the American Expeditionary Force.

The Dorand AR-series were easily identified by their backward-staggered three-bay wings and highly angular single piece tail surface. The pilot sat beneath the leading edge of the upper wing, with the observer's cockpit being under the trailing edge respectively, and there were cut-outs in both wings to improve the latter's visibility. Rather unusually for a single-engine tractor biplane of the era, the lower wing was not directly attached to the fuselage, instead being somewhat below it, supported by struts.

The Dorand AR-series was designed by Captain Georges Lèpere to replace the obsolete Farman F.40 pusher-craft.The air-craft was named after the F.A.A.E's director, Lt. Col. Dorand.
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Dorand AR.1
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Section Technique de l'Aéronautique
  • Designed by: Georges Lèpere
  • First flight: 1916Introduced: 1917
  • Powerplant: 1× Renault 8 Bd V-engine, 190 hp (140 kW)
  • Wingspan: 13,27 m (ft in)
  • Length: 9,14 m (ft in)
  • Wing area: 5,036 m² (ft)
  • Loaded weight: 1250 kg (lb)
  • Maximum speed: 153 km/h at sea level (mph at ft)
  • Range: 3 hours
  • Service ceiling: (5500 m)
  • Crew: 2, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Guns:
    • 1 × fixed forward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun for the pilot
    • 1 or 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun(s) on a movable mounting for the observer
    • Bombs: 80 kg of bombs carried internally
  • References

    1. From Wikipedia Dorand AR, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorand_AR"
    2. Munson, Kenneth "Bombers, Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1914-1919" ISBN 0 7537 0918 X

    Hanriot HD.3

    Hanriot HD-3 - 1917
    Hanriot HD.3

    The Hanriot HD.3 was a two-seat fighter aircraft produced in France during World War One. Similar in appearance to a scaled-up HD.1, it was a conventional, single-bay biplane with staggered wings of equal span. The pilot and gunner sat in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle. Short struts braced the fuselage sides to the lower wing.

    Design development of a compact, well-proportioned two-seat fighter was initiated as the HD.3 in the autumn of 1917, and a prototype flew before the end of the year. Powered by the excellent new 260hp Salmson (Canton-Unne) 9Za radial, the HD.3 had an armament of two fixed synchronised 7.7mm Vickers guns and two 7.7mm Lewis guns on a flexible mounting for the aftfacing gunner. A preliminary order was placed on behalf of the Aviation miiitaire for 120 HD.3s in April 1918, the total subsequently being raised to 300 when it was also ordered for the Aviation maritime. Few HD.3s had been delivered, in fact, by the time of the Armistice, but at least 75 were completed for the Aviation miiitaire and a rather smaller quantity for the naval service. One example of the HD.3 was fitted with twin floats as the prototype of the HD.4, series production of which was frustrated by the Armistice, and a night fighter version was tested as the HD.3bis. This latter had mainplanes of thicker section, enlarged ailerons and a revised rudder.
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    Hanriot HD.3 and HD.4
    • Type: Fighter
    • National Origin: France
    • Manufacturer: Hanriot
    • Designed By: Emile Dupont
    • First Flight: June 1917
    • Primary Users:
      • Aéronautique Militaire
      • Aéronautique Maritime
    • Number Built: ca. 90
    • Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 9Za, 195 kW (260 hp)
    • Wingspan: 29 ft 6 in (9.00 m)
    • Wing Area: 274 ft² (25.5 m²)
    • Length: 22 ft 10 in (6.95 m)
    • Height: 9 ft 10 in (3.00 m)
    • Empty Weight: 1,675 lb (760 kg)
    • Gross Weight: 2,600 lb (1,180 kg)
    • Maximum Speed: 119 mph (192 km/h)
    • Service Ceiling: 5,700 m (18,700 ft)
    • Rate of Climb: 4.1 m/s (800 ft/min)
    • Endurance: 2 hours
    • Crew: Two, pilot and gunner
    • Armament:
      • Guns Pilot: 2 × fixed, forward-firing .303 (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
      • Guns Observer: 2 × trainable, rearward-firing .303 (7.7 mm) Lewis guns

    References

    1. From Wikipedia Hanriot HD.3, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanriot_HD.3"
    2. Bruce, J.M. (1972). War Planes of the First World War: Volume Five Fighters. London: Macdonald, p.19, p.21, pp.24-27, pp.32-35. ISBN 356 03779 7.
    3. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 469.
    4. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 896 Sheet 11.

    SPAD S.XI

    SPAD S.XI - 1917
    SPAD S.XI

    The SPAD S.XI or SPAD 11 was a French two-seat biplane reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War. The SPAD 11 was the work of Louis Béchereau, chief designer of the Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés (SPAD), who also designed the highly successful SPAD 7 and SPAD 13 single-seat fighter aircraft. It was developed under military specification C2, which called for a two-seat fighter aircraft. As a result of its failure to meet the levels of performance and agility demanded by the C2 specification, the SPAD 11 was used, along with the more successful Salmson 2 and Breguet 14, to replace aging Sopwith 1½ Strutter and Dorand AR reconnaissance aircraft. Persistent problems with the SPAD 11 led to its early replacement by the SPAD S.XVI or SPAD 16 variant.
    [Read more]

    SPAD S.XI
    • Type: biplane reconnaissance aircraft
    • Country of Origin: France
    • Manufacturer: SPAD (Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés )
    • Designed by: Louis Béchereau
    • Primary users:
      • France: Aéronautique Militaire
      • Russia: Red Army
    • First Flight: 1917
    • Entered Service: 1918
    • Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Bb engine 200 hp (147 kW)
    • Wingspan: 36 ft 9 in (11.2 m)
    • Length: 25 ft 7 in (7.8 m)
    • Height: 9 ft 2 in (2.8 m)
    • Empty Weight: Empty, 1,994 lb (906 kg)
    • Loaded Weight: 2,508 lb (1,140 kg)
    • Crew: 2
    • Armament:
    • Gun-Pilot: 1 × 0.303 inch (7.7 mm) synchronised fixed forward-firing Vickers machine gun
    • Gun-Observer: 1× 0.303 inch (7.7 mm) trainable Lewis machine gun on a flexible mount

    References

    1. Smithsonian Institution National Air and Space Museum Website SPAD XVI: retrieved: 06/22/2010 "http://www.nasm.si.edu/collections/artifact.cfm?id=A19200002000"
    2. From Wikipedia SPAD S.XI, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPAD_S.XI"
    3. Davilla, James J., & Soltan, Arthur M., "French Aircraft of the First World War." Stratford, Connecticut: Flying Machines Press, 1997. ISBN 0-9637110-4-0
    4. Kenneth Munson's "The Pocket Encyclopedia of World Aircraft in Color BOMBERS 1914-19 Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft", page 143-144.