Morane-Saulnier Type AI

Morane-Saulnier Type AI - 1917
Morane-Saulnier Type AI

The Morane-Saulnier Type AI was a French parasol-wing fighter aircraft produced by Morane-Saulnier during World War I, to replace the obsolete Morane-Saulnier Type N. Its engine was mounted in a circular open-front cowling. The parasol wing was swept back. The spars and ribs of the circular section fuselage were wood, wire-braced and covered in fabric. The production aircraft were given service designations based on whether they had 1 gun (designated MoS 27) or 2 guns (designated MoS 29).
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Morane-Saulnier AI
  • Type: fighter/trainer
  • Country: France
  • Manufacturer: Morane-Saulnier
  • First Flight: August 1917
  • Primary User: French Air Force
  • Number Built: 1210
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Monosoupape 9Nb, 9-cylinder rotary 150 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 27 ft 11 in (8.51 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 6.2 in (5.65 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 10.5 in (2.40 m)
  • Empty Weight: 912 lb (414 kg)
  • Gross Weight: 1,486 lb (674 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 137 mph (221 km/h)
  • Endurance: 1 hours 45 min
  • Service Ceiling: 7000 m (22,965 ft)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 or 2 ×0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun foward of cockpit

References

  1. Donald, David, ed (1997)."The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft". Prospero Books. pp. pg 659. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  2. Holmes, Tony (2005). "Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide". London: Harper Collins. pp. 36. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  3. Lamberton, W.M. (1960). "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Herts: Harleyford Publications Ltd.. pp. 84-85.

Nieuport 23

Nieuport 23 - 1917
Nieuport 23 - 1917

The Nieuport 23 was a fighter aircraft produced in France during the First World War. It was a development of the Nieuport 17 intended to address structural weakness of the earlier type, and most were produced with a lighter version of the Le Rhône 9J engine that powered the Nieuport 17, offering a better power-to-weight ratio. Internally, the main difference between the Types 17 and 23 was a redesigned wing spar in the upper wing. This, however, did not prove satisfactory, and when the fighter displayed an unacceptably high accident rate due to shedding its wings in flight, the Général chef du service aéronautique ordered that either additional reinforcement be added to the wings or that the type be withdrawn from service. One hundred and fifty new sets of wings were ordered to keep the type flying.
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Nieuport 23
  • Role: Fighter
  • National origin: France
  • Manufacturer: Nieuport
  • First flight: 1917
  • Primary user: Aéronautique Militaire
  • Developed from: Nieuport 17
  • Crew: 1, pilot
  • Length: 6.40 m (21 ft 0 in)
  • Wingspan: 8.20 m (26 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 2.40 m (7 ft 11 in)
  • Wing area: 14.8 m² ( ft²)
  • Empty weight: 355 kg (781 lb)
  • Gross weight: 574 kg (1,263 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9Jb, 90 kW (120 hp)
  • Maximum speed: 168 km/h (105 mph)
  • Endurance: 1 hours 7 min
  • Service ceiling: 6,500 m (21,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 5.8 m/s (1,100 ft/min)
  • Armament: 1 × fixed, forward-firing .303 Vickers machine gun

References

  1. "Avion Nieuport 23C.1 (France, 1915) (N-5024)". Musée Royal de l'Armée et d'Histoire Militaire website. http://klm.web.shphosting.com/klm_cdml/fmpro?-db=klm_catalogus.fp5&-lay=web&_k_recordID=12977357&-format=catalogusdetailobj.cdml&-token.1=2&-find. Retrieved 2008-12-11
  2. "Nieuport 23". (2010, November 1). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:59, January 23, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nieuport_23&oldid=394267675
  3. Bruce, J.M. "Nieuport 17", p22. 1990 Berkhamsted: Albatros Publications.
  4. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft". London: Aerospace Publishing.
  5. Kowalski, Tomasz J. "Nieuport 1-27". 2003, p 18. Lublin: Kagero.
  6. Sanger, Ray "Nieuport Aircraft of World War One". 2002, p 49. Ramsbury: Crowood.
  7. Taylor, Michael J. H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation", p 697. 1989. London: Studio Editions.

Nieuport 24

Nieuport 24 - 117
Nieuport 24 Flown by Roland Garros Escadrille 561
Nieuport 24 bis
Nieuport 24bis Flown by Charles Nungesser

The Nieuport 24 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I designed by Gustave Delage as a replacement for the successful Nieuport 17.

The Nieuport 24 introduced a new fuselage of improved aerodynamic form, rounded wingtips, and a tail unit incorporating a small fixed fin and a curved rudder. The tail skid was sprung internally and had a neater appearance than that on earlier Nieuports. A 130 hp Le Rhône rotary engine was fitted.
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Nieuport 24bis.
  • Type: fighter / advanced trainer
  • Manufacturer: Nieuport / British Nieuport and General Aircraft Co.
  • Designed by: Gustave Delage
  • First flight: 1917
  • Primary users:
  • France: Aéronautique Militaire
  • Britian: Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône air-cooled 9 cylinder rotary engine 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Length: 19 ft 3.5 in (5.88 m)
  • Wingspan: 26 ft 10 in (8.18 m)
  • Height: 8 ft (2.44 m)
  • Empty weight: 782 lb (354 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 1,200 lb (544 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 116 mph (187 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 18,200 ft (5,550 m)
  • Rate of climb: 22 min to 16,400 ft (5,000 m)
  • Crew: One
  • Armament:
    • Guns:
    • French service: 1× synchronised 0.303 (7.7 mm) fixed forward-firing machine gun
    • British service: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis machine gun on Foster mounting on upper wing

References

  1. Nieuport 24. (2010, July 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10: 18, July 23, 2010, from http: //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nieuport_24&oldid=373176479
  2. "Nieuport Fighters in Action" published by Squadron/Signal Publications.
  3. Bruce, Jack M. "More Nieuport Classics". Air Enthusiast, Number Five, November 1977-February 1978. Bromley, Kent, UK: Pilot Press. pp. 14-28.
  4. Cheesman E.F. (ed.) Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War Letchworth, Harletford Publications, 1960 pp. 96-97

Nieuport 27

Nieuport 27
Nieuport 27

The Nieuport 27 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I designed by Gustave Delage. The model 27 was the last of the line of Nieuport "V-strut" single seat fighters stemming from the Bébé of early 1916. When introduced, the Nieuport 27 was widely used by the United States Air Service. It was faster than the Nieuport 17 and was armed with twin machine guns. The Nieuport 27 shared the same defect as previous models, it tended to lose fabric from the upper wing. For this reason it was unpopular with pilots and was soon replaced by the new SPAD XIII.

The Nieuport 27's design closely followed the early form of the 24, including its semi-rounded rear fuselage and rounded wingtips and ailerons. The structural problems with the redesigned, rounded tail surfaces of the 24, which had resulted in the use of a Nieuport 17 type tail in the 24bis., were by now overcome, so that the new version was able to standardise on the new tail. By now most Nieuport fighters were actually used as advanced trainers, and the 130 hp Le Rhône Rotary engine of the 24bis. was often replaced by a 110 or 120 hp version. The trainers were not normally fitted with machine guns.
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Nieuport 27
  • Type: fighter / advanced trainer
  • Manufacturer: Nieuport, Nieuport-Macchi
  • Designed by: Gustave Delage
  • First flight: 1917
  • Developed From: Nieuport 24
  • Primary Users:
    • France Aéronautique Militaire
    • Great Britian Royal Flying Corps
    • Italy: Corpo Aeronautico Militare
    • United States: United States Air Service
  • Wingspan: 8.18 m (26 ft 10 in)
  • Length: 5.88 m (19 ft 3.5 in)
  • Height: 2.44 m (8 ft)
  • Empty weight: 354 kg (782 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 544 kg (1200 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1× Le Rhone 9 cylinder, air cooled Rotary, 90 kW (120 hp)
  • Maximum Speed: 116 mph (187 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 5,550 m (18,210 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 22 min to 5000 m (16,400 ft)
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: One
  • Armament:
    • French/Italian service: 1 × synchronised Vickers machine gun
    • British service: 1 × Lewis gun on Foster mounting on upper wing

References

  1. Nieuport 27. (2010, May 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:04, July 25, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nieuport_27&oldid=363829903
  2. Cooksley, Peter, Ernesto Cumpian, and Don Greer. "Nieuport Fighters in Action" Aircraft No. 167, Squadron/Signal Publications; 1st edition (September 1997) ISBN-10: 0897473779 ISBN-13: 978-0897473774
  3. Cheesman E.F. (ed.) "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918" War Letchworth, Harletford Publications, 1960 pp. 96-97
  4. Davilla, Dr. James J. and Arthur Soltan "French Aircraft of the First World War" Paladin Press, January 1999 ISBN: 0963711040 ISBN-13: 9780963711045
  5. Bingham, Hiram Jr."An Explorer in the Air",Yale University Press Reprint Mar 2010 General Books ISBN: 1153865181

Nieuport 28

Nieuport 28 - 1917
Nieuport 28

Rejected by the French and British air services, the Nieuport 28 was the first biplane fighter received in large numbers by squadrons of the United States Air Service. A favorite with aces like Harold Hartney, it was fast and maneuverable but had a tendency to shed its upper wing fabric if its pilot pulled out of a steep dive too quickly. The Nieuport 28 was replaced by the less maneuverable SPAD S.XIII.
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Nieuport 28
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Société Anonyme des Establissements Nieuport
  • First Introduced: 1917
  • Powerplant: Gnome Monosoupape 9N, 9 cylinder rotary, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 9 in 8.15 m
  • Length: 21 ft 6.40 m
  • Height: 8 ft 1.75 in 2.5 m
  • Loaded Weight: 1,627 lb 737 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 122 mph 196 km/h
  • Service Ceiling: 16,995 ft 5,180 m
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Nieuport 28, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nieuport_28"
  2. Cheesman E.F. (ed.) "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth, UK: Harleyford Publications, 1960, p. 94, pp. 98-99, p. 106.
  3. Cooksley, Peter. "Nieuport Fighters in Action" (Aircraft No. 167). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89747-377-9.
  4. Dorr, Robert F. and David Donald. "Fighters of the United States Air Force". London: Aerospace Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0-60055-094-X.
  5. Treadwell, Terry C. "America's First Air War". London: Airlife Publishing, 2000, pp. 16-17. ISBN 1-84037-113-7.

SPAD S XIII

SPAD S-XIII 1917
SPAD S XIII

Equipped with twin machine guns and a larger engine, the SPAD S.XIII was based upon the smaller SPAD S.VII. Built in large numbers, it was fast and powerful but difficult to fly. The SPAD S.XIII was flown by many of the famous aces including Georges Guynemer, Rene Fonck, and also by Italian ace Francesco Baracca. Aces of the United States Army Air Service who flew the Spad XIII include and Eddie Rickenbacker, (America's leading ace with 26 confirmed victories) and Frank Luke (18 victories). Irish ace William Cochran-Patrick scored more victories with the SPAD S.VII and SPAD S.XIII than any other ace.
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SPAD S XIII
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés
  • Designed By: Louis Béchereau
  • First Introduced: September 1917
  • Number Built: 8,472
  • Powerplant: Hispano-Suiza 8 BEc, water cooled V-8, 235 hp
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 11 in
  • Length: 20 ft 8 in
  • Height: 7 ft 11 in
  • Loaded Weight: 1,801 lb
  • Maximum Speed: 138 mph at 6,560 ft
  • Service Ceiling: 21,820 ft
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia SPAD S-XIII, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPAD_S.XIII"
  2. Sharpe, Michael (2000). "Biplanes, Triplanes, and Seaplanes". London: Friedman/Fairfax Books, p 272. ISBN 1-58663-300-7.
  3. Bruce, J.M. (1982). "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Military Wing). London: Putnam, pp. 561-564. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  4. Winchester, Jim (2006). "Fighter - The World's Finest Combat Aircraft - 1913 to the Present Day". Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc. and Parragon Publishing, p.18, p. 23. ISBN 0-7607-7957-0.