In a flying boat, the main source of buoyancy is the fuselage, which acts like a ship's hull in the water. Most flying boats have small floats mounted on their wings to keep them stable. All large seaplanes have been flying boats, their great weight supported on their hull.

Russian Flying Boats 1913

Curtiss Model F

Curtiss Model F
Curtiss Model F-4 - 1913

The Curtiss Models F made up a family of early flying boats developed in the United States in the years leading up to World War I. Widely produced, Model Fs saw service with the United States Navy under the designations C-2 through C-5, later reclassified to AB-2 through AB-5. Several examples were exported to Russia, and the type was built under licence in Italy.

In configuration, these were biplane flying boats powered by a single engine mounted amongst the interplane struts and driving a pusher propeller. The pilot and a single passenger sat side-by-side in an open cockpit. The wing cellule was derived from the Model E landplane and was of two-bay, unstaggered, equal-span construction with large ailerons mounted on the interplane struts and extending past the span of the wings themselves. The earliest examples of this design were built and sold by Curtiss in 1912 without any designation applied to them; the Model F name only coming into use the following year. Confusingly, Curtiss also used the designation Model E to refer to some early machines in this family, although these were quite distinct from Curtiss landplanes that bore this same designation and all but identical to the Model Fs.
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Curtiss Model F 1913
  • Role: Utility flying boat
  • Manufacturer: Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
  • Designed by: Glenn Curtiss
  • First flight: 12 January 1912
  • Primary users:
  • United States Navy
  • Russian Navy
  • Italian Navy
  • Number built: over 150
  • Powerplant: 1 × Curtiss OXX-3 V-8, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wingspan: 45 ft 1⅜ in (13.75 m)
  • Wing area: 387 ft² (36.0 m²)
  • Length: 27 ft 9¾ in (8.47 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 2⅞ in (3.42 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,860 lb (844 kg)
  • Gross weight: 2,460 lb (1,116 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 69 mph (111 km/h)
  • Range: 851 miles (1370 km)
  • Endurance: 5 hours 30 min
  • Service ceiling: 4,500 ft (1,370 m)
  • Rate of climb: 230 ft/min (1.2 m/s) 2,300 ft (700 m): 10 min
  • Crew: Two

References

  1. Curtiss Model F. (2010, October 12). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:59, November 1, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Curtiss_Model_F&oldid=390334667
  2. The Great War Society Aircraft of the A E F Curtiss F Boat Retrieved 12:59, November 1, 2010, from http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/curtissf.htm
  3. Virtual Aircraft Museum Curtiss Model F 1913 Retrieved 12:59, November 1, 2010, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/usa/curtiss_model-f.php
  4. Aerofiles Those Curtiss Boats Retrieved 12:59, November 1, 2010, from http://aerofiles.com/curtiss-boats.html
  5. Bowers, Peter M. (1979). Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947. London: Putnam. ISBN 0 370 10029 8.
  6. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 193, 278.
  7. The Curtiss Flyleaf. Hammondsport, New York: Glenn H. Curtiss Museum of Local History. 1987.
  8. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 891 Sheet 43.

Grigorovich M-1

Grigorovich M-1 - 1913
Grigorovich M-1 - 1913

The Grigorovich M-1 was a single-engine flying boat, designed by Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich and manufactured in Russia in 1913.

After repairing a crashed Donnet-Lévêque flying boat, D.P.Grigorovich built his first original flying boat . It differed from the prototype by shorter fuselage of modified shape and wing airfoil similar to one used on Farman-16.
[Read more]

Grigorovich M-1
  • Type: Flying boat
  • National Origin: Russia
  • Designed By: Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich
  • First Flight: 1913
  • Number Built: 1
  • Developed From: 912 Donnet Lévêque
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Rotary engine, 50 hp (37 kW)
  • Wingspan: 31 ft 2 in (9.5 m)
  • Wing Area: 196 ft² (18.2 m²)
  • Length: 24 ft 3 in (7.4 m)
  • Empty Weight: 926 lb (420 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,367 lb (620 kg)
  • Crew: 2

References

  1. From Wikipedia Grigorovich M-1, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigorovich_M-1"
  2. Gunston, Bill. "The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft 1875-1995". London:Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1 85532 405 9.
  3. Shavrov, V.B. "History of aircraft construction in the USSR (Istoriya Konstruktsij Samoletov v SSSR.)" Vol 1-2. Moskva, Mashinostroenie, 1994. ISBN 5-217-02528-X

Russian Flying Boats 1915

Grigorovich M-2

Grigorovich M-2 - 1915
Grigorovich M-2 - 1915

Grigorovich M-2 was an experimental Russian World War I-era biplane flying boat with a single step hull, designed by Grigorovich. It was one of the early flying boat built in Russia.

The M-2 was slightly larger than the M-1. The triangular section rear fuselage was raised from the water, tail was equipped with a skid, often referred to as the "shovel". The lower wings were installed 1m above the hull on the engine support frame.
[Read more]

Grigorovich M-2 ( Sch-2)
  • Type: Experimental observation flying boat
  • National Origin: Russia
  • Designed By: Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich
  • Manufacturer: Shchetinin
  • Operator: Black Sea Fleet
  • First Flight: 1914
  • Number Built: 1
  • Developed From: 912 Donnet Lévêque
  • Powerplant: 1 × Clerget Type 9, 9 Cylinder Rotary Engine 110 hp (82 kW)
  • Wingspan: 44.88 feet (13.68m)
  • Wing Area: 109.9 ft² (33.5m²)
  • Length: 26 feet 3 in (8.0m)
  • Loaded Weight: 1918 lb (870kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 62 mph (100 km/h)
  • Wing Load: (26kg/m²)
  • Crew: 2

References

  1. "M-2, D.P.Grigorovich", by Alexandre Savine http://www.ctrl-c.liu.se/MISC/RAM/m-2.html Last Modified September 17, 1997. Retreived/14/2010 2:00:29 UTC
  2. Shavrov, V.B. "History of aircraft construction in the USSR" Vol.1 p.137-138; ISBN 5-217-02528-X

Grigorovich M-5

Grigorovich M-5
Grigorovich M-5 - 1915

Grigorovich M-5 (alternative designation Shch M-5, sometimes also Shchetinin M-5) was a successful Russian World War I-era two-bay unequal-span biplane flying boat with a single step hull, designed by Grigorovich. It was the first mass production flying boat built in Russia.

The aircraft designer Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich completed his first flying boat (the model M-1) in late 1913, and produced a series of prototypes, gradually improving the design, until the M-5 appeared in the spring of 1915, which was to be his first aircraft to enter series production, with at least 100 being produced, primarily to replace foreign built aircraft, including Curtiss Model K and FBA flying boats.
[Read more]

Grigorovich M-5
  • Type: Reconnaissance flying boat
  • Manufacturer: Shchetinin
  • Designed By: Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Retired: 1920s
  • Primary Users: Russian Navy
  • Number Built: ca 300
  • Developed From: Curtiss Model K
  • Powerplant: 1× Gnome Monosoupape rotary piston, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 8 ¼ in (13.62 m)
  • Wing Area: 408 ft² 37.90 m²()
  • Length: 28 ft 2 ½ in (8.60 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,455 lb (660 kg)
  • Max. Takeoff Weight: 2,116 lb (960 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 65 mph (105 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 10,825 ft (3,300 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 9.6 min to 3280 ft (1 km)
  • Wing Loading: 5.2 lb/ft² 25 kg/m²(;)
  • Power/Mass: 0.05 hp/lb (0.08 W/kg)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 1 × 7.62 mm Vickers MG

References

  1. From Wikipedia, "Grigorovich M-5http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigorovich_M-5"
  2. Durkota, Darcey & Kulikov. "The Imperial Russian Air Service - Famous Pilots and Aircraft of World War 1". Flying Machines Press (1995). ISBN 0-9637110-2-4.
  3. Gunston, Bill The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft from 1875-1995. Osprey Aerospace. (1995). ISBN 1-85532-405-9.
  4. Heinonen, Timo: "Thulinista Hornetiin" - Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseon julkaisuja 3, Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseo, (Finnish) 1992, ISBN 951-95688-2-4

Russian Flying Boats 1916

Grigorovich M-9

Grigorovich M-9 - 1916
Grigorovich M-9 - 1916

The Grigorovich M-9 (alternative designation ShCh M-9, sometimes also Shchetinin M-9) was a Russian World War I-era biplane flying boat, developed from the M-5 by Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich.

M-9 was a very successful flying boat, similar to the M-5. It was reliable, was operational on waves over half a meter high, and had above average handling characteristics. The M-9 could be craned to and from the water and ship. The M-9 was also capable of landing on snow without special skis.

The first M-9 was completed in December 1915. The flight tests ere carried out in Baku until January 9, 1916. On September 17, 1916 pilot Ya.I.Nagurskij performed a Nesterov Loop on the M-9, making it the world first hydroplane to perform the maneuvre. Two loops were performed with a passenger onboard.

Unfortunately, the full potential of M-9 was never reliezed. The prototype had egg-shaped engine fairing intended to reduce drag. But on series M-9 it was deleted and never reappeared Numerous requests of pilots and military officials complained about the aircraft's lack of rear defensive armament. Despite the fact that its layout allowed for the addition of a rear gunner's cockpit without any radical changes to the airframe, it never entered production. Several pilots attempted to install a rear-firing machine gun under the wing with real effect. In 1917 many aviators refused to fly the M-9 without an escort. From thn on it flew protected by land-based "Nieuport-17" or "Nieuport-21".
[Read more]

Grigorovich M-9
  • Role: Reconnaissance flying boat
  • Manufacturer: Shchetinin
  • Designed by: Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich
  • First flight : January 9, 1916
  • Retired: 1920s
  • Primary users:
    • Russian navy
    • Finnish Air Force
  • Number built: ca 500
  • Developed from: Grigorovich M-5
  • Powerplant: 1× Salmson 9 pusher radial engine, 150 hp (111 kW)
  • Wingspan: 52 ft 6 in (16.00 m)
  • Wing area: 589.6 ft² (54.8 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft 6 in (9.00 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 10 in (3.3 m)
  • Wing Load: (28.2 kg/m2 )
  • Power Load: (10.3 kg/hp)
  • Empty weight: 2337 lb (1060 kg)
  • Loaded weight: (1610 kg)
  • Useful load: kg (kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 1,610 kg (3,542 lb)
  • Maximum speed: 110 km/h (59 knots, 68 mph)
  • Service ceiling: 3,000 m (9,840 ft)
  • Climb To: 1000m 13.0min 12.0min
  • Climb To: 2000m 35.0min 30.0min
  • Endurance: 3.5 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 1× Gun: either
    • 1× Vickers 0.303 in (7.71mm) machine gun or
    • 1× 7.5 mm machine gun or
    • 1×20 mm cannon or
    • 1× 37 mm cannon

References

  1. Russian Aviation:Grigorovich/ S.S.Schetinin M-9 "http://ram-home.com/ram-old/m-9.html"
  2. Rusjet http://www.rusjet.ru
  3. "http://airwar.ru/enc/other1/m9.html (Russian Text)"
  4. Virtual Aircraft Museum "http://www.aviastar.org/air/russia/a_grigorovich.php"
  5. War is Over: Russian aviation in WW1: Flying boats "http://www.wio.ru/ww1a/fboat.htm"
  6. From Wikipedia Grigorovich M-9, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigorovich_M-9"
  7. Heinonen, Timo: Thulinista Hornetiin - Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseon julkaisuja 3, Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseo, (Finnish) 1992, ISBN 951-95688-2-4
  8. Tucker, Spencer (Editor) "World War I: encyclopedia". M - R, Volume 3 ABC-CLIO, 2005, ISBN 1851094202, 9781851094202
  9. Shavrov, V.B. "History of aircraft construction in the USSR (Istoriya Konstruktsij Samoletov v SSSR.)" Vol 1-2. Moskva, Mashinostroenie, 1994. ISBN 5-217-02528-X

Grigorovich M-11 & M-12

Grigorovich M-11 - 1916
Grigorovich M-11 - 1916

The Grigorovich M-11 (or Shchetinin M-11) was a Russian single-seat fighter flying boat designed by Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich and built by Shchetinin
[Read more]

Grigorovich M-12

Grigorovich M-12 - 1916
Grigorovich M-12 - 1916

To improve the water handling an improved variant was developed as the M-12 which had a re-designed hull and reduced loaded weight. Although the climb to height was improved the forward speed was 5 mph (8 km/h) less than the M-11 consequentially only a few M-12s were built.

Grigorovich M-11
  • Role: Single-seat fighter flying boat
  • National origin: Russia
  • Manufacturer: Shchetinin
  • Designed by: Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich
  • First flight: 1916
  • Number built: 60+
  • Variants:
    • M-11 (two-seat) Small numbers built for training use.
    • M-11 (single-seat) Production variant, 60 built.
    • M-12 Improved version.
  • Length: 7.60 m (24 ft 11¼ in)
  • Wingspan: 8.75 m (28 ft 8½ in)
  • Wing area: 279.87 ft² (26 m²)
  • Empty weight: 676 kg (1490 lb)
  • Gross weight: 926 kg (2041 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône rotary piston, 82 kW (110 hp)
  • Maximum speed: 148 km/h (92 mph)
  • Endurance: 2 hours 42 min
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 × 7.62mm (0.3 in) Maxim machine-gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia,Grigorovich M-11, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigorovich_M-11"
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: (1989). Studio Editions.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft" (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing, pp 2013

Grigorovich M-15

Grigorovich M-15 - 1916
Grigorovich M-15 - 1916

Grigorovich M-15 (alternative designation ShCh M-15, sometimes also Shchetinin M-15) was a successful Russian World War I-era biplane flying boat, developed from the M-9 by Grigorovich.

The M-15 was a smaller version of the M-9 intended to replace the latter, however it was only built in small numbers due to shortage of the more powerful Hispano-Suiza engines. After the summer of 1917 it was mostly used as a trainer.

Two M-15s fell into Finnish hands during the Russian Civil War. The aircraft were abandoned at Âland and Turku. The Russian officer J.Herbert flew the Âland aircraft to mainland Finland and was awarded an officers title in the Finnish Air Force. Only the Âland aircraft was in flyworthy condition. The aircraft was flown until 1919.

Grigorovich M-15
  • Role: Reconnaissance flying boat
  • National Origin: Russia
  • Manufacturer: Shchetinin
  • Designed by: Dmitri Grigorovich
  • First Flight: 1916
  • Retired: 1920s
  • Primary users:
    • Russian navy
    • Finnish Air Force
  • Number Built: 80 planned
  • Developed from: Grigorovich M-9
  • Powerplant: 1× Hispano-Suiza pusher, 140 hp (104 kW)
  • Wingspan: 11.9 m
  • Wing Area: 44.0 m²
  • Length: 8.40 m
  • Empty Weight: 840 kg
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 1,320 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 125 km/h
  • Range: km (nm, mi, 5.5 h)
  • Service ceiling: 3,500 m
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 1× MG

References

  1. Grigorovich M-15 Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigorovich_M-15"
  2. Heinonen, Timo: Thulinista Hornetiin - Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseon julkaisuja 3, Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseo, 1992, ISBN 951-95688-2-4

Grigorovich M-24

Grigorovich M-24 - 1916
Grigorovich M-24 - 1916

The Grigorovich M-24 was a Soviet biplane flying boat in construction during the 1920s.

Dmitri Grigorovich, active during the 20's in the gas plant No.3 "Red Flyers" in St. Petersburg, where he began the development work on the M-24 in April 1922. The design was based on its successful M-9. Some of the differences in the M-24 was dual wings ailerons, and the total area of the hull was changed. THe original design used a 220 hp Renault engine.
[Read more]

Grigorovich M-24
  • National origin: Russia
  • Manufacturer: Shchetinin
  • Designed by: Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich
  • Initial Design: 1916
  • First Flight: 1924
  • Wingspan: 16.00 m
  • Wing Area: 55,00 m²
  • Length: 9.00 m
  • Empty Weight: 1200 kg
  • Take Off Weight: 1700 kg
  • Powerplant: 1 × Renault V-8 cylinder engine 260 hp (194 kW)
  • Top speed: 140 km / h
  • Ceiling: 4000 m
  • Crew: 2 (pilot / observer)
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 1 × 7.62 mm machine gun
    • Bombs: 100 kg bomb load

References

  1. "Grigorovich M-24" on the website Wikipedia
  2. World War I Aero Magazine, Number 171, February 2001. Byrd Aviation Books
  3. Grigorovich, Andrei Alexandrov M-9 & M-24 Part 1 Volume 2 Citadel Books
  4. Grigorovich, Andrei Alexandrov M-9 & M-24 Part 2 Volume 3 Citadel Books