A floatplane has slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage. Two floats are common, but other configurations are possible. Only the "floats" of a floatplane normally come into contact with water. The fuselage remains above water. Some small land aircraft can be modified to become float planes and in general floatplanes are small aircraft. Floatplanes are limited by their ability to handle wave heights typically greater than 12 inches (0.31 m). These float pontoons add to the empty weight of the airplane, and to the drag coefficient, resulting in reduced payload capacity, slower rate-of-climb and slower cruise speed.

British Floatplanes 1913

Avro 501

Avro 501 - 1913
Avro 501

The Avro Type H, Type 501, and Type 503 were a family of early British military seaplanes. They were a development of the Avro 500 design and were originally conceived of as amphibious; the prototype being fitted with a single large main float (equipped with wheels) under the fuselage, and two outrigger floats under the wings. Tests were conducted on Lake Windermere in January 1913. It was later converted to twin-float configuration and bought by the British Admiralty. It now, however, proved too heavy and was converted again - this time to a landplane.
[Read more]

AVRO 501
  • Role: Military Utility Seaplane
  • National Origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • First flight: January 1913
  • Number built: 5
  • Operators:
    • German Empire
    • United Kingdom
    • Turkey
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome rotary, 100 hp (75 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 47 ft 6 in (14.48 m)
  • Wing area: 478 ft² (44.4 m²)
  • Length: 33 ft 0 in (10.06 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 6 in (3.81 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,740 lb (789 kg)
  • Gross weight: 2,700 lb (1,225 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 55 mph (89 km/h)
  • Crew: one pilot
  • Capacity: 1 observer or passenger

References

  1. "Avro 501". (2011, January 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:57, January 31, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_501&oldid=409396299
  2. Jackson, A.J. (1990)." Avro Aircraft since 1908" (Second ed.), p. 51. London: Putnam. ISBN 0 -85177-834-8.
  3. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 91.
  4. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 889 Sheet 93.

Bristol TB.8

Bristol TB 8H
Bristol TB.8H

The Bristol T.B.8 was an early (1913-14) British biplane built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, which was produced in significant numbers (54 were built) for the time. While mainly used as a trainer, T.B.8s were briefly used as bombers at the start of the First World War by the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS).

Henri Coanda, chief designer of the Bristol Aeroplane Company, developed the T.B.8 as a biplane development of his earlier Bristol-Coanda Monoplane to meet an order from the British Admiralty, the first aircraft, a conversion of a Bristol-Coanda monoplane, flying on 12 August 1913 . This aircraft was tested with both wheeled undercarriage and floats.

The T.B.8 was a single engined, two seat biplane, with two bay wings and a slender fuselage. While early T.B.8s used wing warping, later production aircraft were fitted with ailerons. They were normally fitted with a distinctive four wheel undercarriage. T.B.8s were powered by a variety of rotary engines, including Gnome and Le Rhône engines with power ranging from 50 hp Gnomes to 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engines . T.B.8s were produced both by conversion of Coanda Monoplanes, and by new production.
[Read more]

Bristol TB.8
  • Type: Trainer
  • Manufacturer: Bristol Aeroplane Company
  • Designed By: Henri Coanda
  • First Flight: 1913
  • Introduced: 1913
  • Retired: 1916
  • Primary Users:
    • Royal Naval Air Service
    • Royal Flying Corps
    • Romanian Air Force
  • Number Built: 54
  • Developed From: Bristol-Coanda Monoplanes
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Rotary engine, 80hp (60 kW)
  • Wingspan: 37 ft 8 in (11.48 m)
  • Wing Area: 450 ft² (41.8 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft 3 in (8.92 m)
  • Empty weight: 970lb (441 kg)
  • Maxium Takeoff Weight: 1,665 lb (757 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 56-61 knots (65-70 mph, 105-113 km/h)
  • Climb to 3000 ft (915 m): 11 min
  • Endurance: 5 hours
  • Crew: Two
  • Armament: Light bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Bristol TB.8, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_TB.8"
  2. Mason, Francis K (1994). "The British Bomber since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
  3. Barnes, C.H. (1964). "Bristol Aircraft Since 1910" (First Edition ed.). London: Putnam.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 204.
  5. Thetford, Owen (1994). "British Naval Aircraft since 1912" (Fourth Edition ed.). London: Putnam. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
  6. Barnes, C.H. (1964). "Bristol Aircraft Since 1910" (First Edition ed.). London: Putnam. p.81-2, 85

British Floatplanes 1914

Avro 510

Avro 510 - 1914
Avro 510 - 1914

The Avro 510 was a two-seat racing seaplane designed by Avro to compete in the 1914 Circuit of Britain Race. It was a conventional two-bay biplane of greatly uneven span equipped with two large central floats and two outriggers. The race was called off at the outbreak of the First World War, but the British Admiralty was aware of the type and ordered five examples, with modified floats and tail. In service, these proved completely unsuitable, and it was discovered that with a second person aboard the aircraft could barely fly. In October 1915, the 510s in service were sent to Supermarine for modification and improvement, but by March the following year all were removed from service.
[Read more]

Avro 510
  • Role: Racing seaplane
  • National Origin: Britian
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • First flight: July 1914
  • Number: built 6
  • Variants: Avro 519
  • Powerplant: 1× Sunbeam Crusader V-8 water cooled engine, 150 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 63 ft (19.21 m)
  • Wing area: 564 ft² (52.4 m²)
  • Length: 38 ft (11.59 m)
  • Empty weight: 2,080 lb (943 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2,800 lb (1,270 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 70 mph (113 km/h)
  • Rate of climb: 220 ft/min (1.1 m/s) Climb to 1000 ft (305 m) 4.5 minutes
  • Endurance: 4 hr 30 min
  • Crew: 1 pilot

References

  1. Sunbeam: Side Valve Engines: The Crusader. Wolverhampton Museum of Industry. Wolverhampton History & Heritage Society. http://www.localhistory.scit.wlv.ac.uk/Museum/Transport/planes/SunbeamEngines1.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
  2. Avro 510. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:43, November 18, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_510&oldid=360032300
  3. Jackson, A.J. (1990). Avro Aircraft since 1908. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 93.

Blackburn Type L

Blackburn Type L - 1914
Blackburn Type L - 1914

The Blackburn Type L was a single-engine, two-seat biplane built for the 1914 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain seaplane race of 1914.

All six of Robert Blackburn's previous aircraft had been monoplanes and had suffered no structural problems, but during 1912 in both the UK and in Europe there had been enough monoplane structural failures for the RFC to ban them from service. There was a move to biplanes which Blackburn followed. The Type L, his first biplane and a seaplane was built specifically as a candidate for the Circuit of Britain Race, sponsored by the Daily Mail with a £5,000 winner's prize.
[Read more]

Blackburn Type L
  • Role: racing seaplane
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co Ltd
  • Designed by: Robert Blackburn
  • First flight: 1914
  • Retired: 1915
  • Number built: 1
  • Powerplant: 1 × Salmson-Canton-Unné 9-cylinder water cooled radial. Power at 1,250 rpm, 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Wingspan: 49 ft 6 in (15.08 m)
  • Wing area: 481 ft² (44.7 m²)
  • Length: 32 ft 6 in (9.91 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 6 in (3.81 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,717 lb (779 kg)
  • Gross weight: 2,475 lb (1,123 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 81 mph (130 km/h)
  • Range: 445 miles (715 km)
  • Service ceiling: 11,00 ft (3,350 m)
  • Rate of climb: (to 5000ft (1,525 m)) 147 ft/min (0.75 m/s)
  • Crew: 2

References

  1. "Blackburn Type L". (2010, January 6). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10:27, February 12, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blackburn_Type_L&oldid=336154128
  2. "Daily Mail £5,000 prize". Flight (15 May 1914): p.518. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1914/1914%20-%200518.html.
  3. "The "Round Britain" machines". Flight (25 September 1914): pp.973-5. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1914/1914%20-%200973.html.
  4. "Aero engines in Paris Show, 1913.". Flight (21 February 1914): pp.191-2. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1914/1914%20-%200191.html.
  5. Jackson, A.J. (1968). Blackburn Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam Publishing. ISBN 0 370 00053 6.
  6. "Blackburn Aircraft. 2010": General Books LLC ISBN-13: 9781155327259

Short Type 827

Short Admiralty Type 827 - 1914
Short Admiralty Type 827 - 1914

The Short Type 827 was a British two-seat reconnaissance floatplane built for the Admiralty by Short Brothers. It was also known as the Short Admiralty Type 827

The Type 827 was a slightly smaller development of the earlier Short Type 166 a two-bay biplane with unswept equal span wings. It had a box section fuselage mounted on the lower wing. The 827 had twin floats under the forward fuselage and small floats fitted at the wingtips and tail. Powered by a nose-mounted Sunbeam Nubian engine with a two-bladed tractor propeller. The crew of two sat in open cockpits in tandem.

The aircraft was not only built by Shorts (36 aircraft) but also produced by different contractors around the United Kingdom, i.e. Brush Electrical (20), Parnall (20), Fairey (12) and Sunbeam (20).

A variant powered by 135 hp (101 kW) Salmson water-cooled radial engine was produced and designated the Short Type 830.

Short Type 830
Short Type 830
Short Type 827
  • Type: two-seat reconnaissance floatplane
  • Country: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer:
    • Short (36)
    • Brush Electrical (20)
    • Parnall (20)
    • Fairey (12)
    • Sunbeam (20)
  • First Flight: 1914
  • Primary User: Royal Naval Air Service
  • Number Built:
    • Type 827: (108)
    • Type 830: (28)
  • Powerplant:
    • Type 827: 1 × Sunbeam Nubian engine 150 hp (112 kW)
    • Type 830: 1 × Salmson water-cooled radial engine 135 hp (101 kW) or
    • 1 × Canton-Unné radial engine140 hp (104 kW)
  • Wingspan: 53 ft 11 in (16.43 m)
  • Wing area: 506 ft² (47.01 m²)
  • Length: 35 ft 3 in (10.74 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 6 in (4.11 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,700 lb (1,225 kg)
  • Gross weight: 3,400 lb (1,542 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 62 mph (100 km/h)
  • Endurance: 3 hours 30 min
  • Crew: 2 (pilot, observer)
  • Armament:
  • Guns: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun on flexible mount in rear cockpit
  • Bombs: Provision for light bombs on underwing racks

References

  1. Short Type 827. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:20, November 16, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Short_Type_827&oldid=360038329
  2. Barnes C.H. and James D.N (1989). Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam. pp. 560. ISBN 0-85177-819-4.
  3. Bruce, J.M (1956). "The Short Seaplanes: Historic Military Aircraft No 14: Part II". Flight (21 December 1956): pp.965-968. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1956/1956%20-%201804.html.
  4. Bruce, J.M (1957). "The Short Seaplanes: Historic Military Aircraft No 14: Part IV". Flight (4 January 1957): pp.23-24. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1957/1957%20-%200023.html.
  5. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 801.
  6. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing.

British Floatplanes 1915

Short Admiralty Type 184

Short Admiralty Type 184 - 1915
Short Admiralty Type 184 - 1915

The Short Type 184 was a British two-seat reconnaissance, bombing and torpedo carrying folder seaplane designed by Short Brothers.

An urgent requirement by the British Admiralty for a torpedo-carrying seaplane was met by a design by Horace Short of Short Brothers, Rochester, England.

The first aircraft flew in early 1915 and 936 aircraft were built by ten different British aircraft companies making it the most successful of Shorts' pre-World War II aircraft.

In August 1915, a Short 184 of piloted by Flight Commander Charles H. K. Edmonds from HMS Ben-my-Chree operating in the Aegean became the first aircraft in the world to attack an enemy ship with an air-launched torpedo.

However, on 17 August 1915, another Turkish ship was sunk by a torpedo of whose origin there can be no doubt. On this occasion Flight Commander C H Edmonds, flying a Short 184, torpedoed a Turkish steamer a few miles north of the Dardanelles. His formation colleague, Flt Lt G B Dacre, was forced to land on the water owing to engine trouble but, seeing an enemy tug close by, taxied up to it and released his torpedo. The tug blew up and sank. Thereafter Dacre was able to take off and return to the Ben-My-Chree.

Flt Lt Dacre later became Air Commodore and was appointed twice as Air Officer Commanding No. 1 School of Technical Training. His widow, Elizabeth Dacre (who had been a distinguished Group Officer in the WAAF), donated his dress sword to the Air Cadet Corps.
[Read more]

Short Type 184
  • Type: Scout / Torpedo bomber
  • Manufacturer: Short Brothers
    • Brush Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd. (190)
    • Frederick Sage & Co. Ltd. (72)
    • J. Samuel White (110)
    • Mann, Egerton & Co. Ltd. (22)
    • Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company (62)
    • Robey & Co. Ltd.[6] (256)
    • S E Saunders Limited (80)
    • Short Brothers, Rochester (117)
    • Supermarine Aviation Works Ltd. (15)
    • Westland Aircraft Works Ltd. (12)
  • Designed By: Horace Short
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Entered Service: 1915
  • Primary Users:
    • Royal Naval Air Service
    • Royal Flying Corps
    • Hellenic Air Force
    • Estonian Air Force
  • Number Built: 936
  • Variants: Mann Egerton Type B
  • Powerplant: 1 × Sunbeam Gurkha (74 units), Sunbeam Maori, 260 hp (194 kW)
  • Wingspan: 63 ft 6in (19.36 m)
  • Wing Area: 688 ft² (63.9 m²)
  • Length: 40 ft 7 in (12.38 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 6 in (4.11 m)
  • Empty Weight: 3,703 lb (1,680 kg)
  • Loaded weight: lb (kg)
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 5,363 lb (2,433 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 88 mph (142 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 9,000 ft (2,745 m)
  • Endurance: 2¾ hrs
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun in rear cockpit
    • Bombs: 1 × 14 in (356 mm) torpedo or up to 520 lb (236 kg) of bombs

References

  1. Short Type 184. (2010, October 1). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:08, November 16, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Short_Type_184&oldid=388076721
  2. Guinness Book of Air Facts and Feats (3rd ed.). 1977
  3. Gerdessen, F. (April - July 1982). Estonian Air Power 1918 - 1945. Air Enthusiast (No 18): pp 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450
  4. Barnes C.H. and James D.N (1989). Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam. pp. 527, 541. ISBN 0-85177-819-4.

Sopwith Baby

Sopwith Baby
Sopwith Baby, N1019

The Baby was a development of the two-seat Sopwith Schneider. Although the Schneider had won the Schneider trophy in 1914, the RNAS did not place a formal order until January 1915. The production version of the Baby differed little from the Schneider Trophy winner.

The Baby was also built by Blackburn Aircraft, Fairey, and Parnall in the United Kingdom. In Italy licensed manufacture was undertaken by SA Aeronautica Gio Ansaldo of Turin.

The Baby was used as a shipborne scout and bomber aircraft operating from larger ships such as seaplane carriers and cruisers, and smaller vessels such as naval trawlers and minelayers. It was even considered for operation from submarines. The main role of the Baby was to intercept German Zeppelin raids as far from Britain as possible.
[Read more]

Sopwith Baby
  • Type: Single-seat scout and bomber biplane seaplane
  • Manufacturer:
    • Sopwith Aviation Company
    • Blackburn Aircraft
    • Fairey
    • Parnall
    • SA Aeronautica Gio Ansaldo
  • Number Built: about 700
  • Entered Service: September 1915
  • Powerplant: 1× Clerget rotary, 110 hp. (82 kW)
  • Length: 23 ft 0 in (7.01 m)
  • Wingspan: 25 ft 8 in (7.82 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 0 in (3.05 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,226 lb (557 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,715 lb (779 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 87 knots (100 mph, 162 km/h) at sea level
  • Service ceiling: 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Endurance: 2.25 hrs
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun
    • 2 × 65 lb (28 kg) bombs

References

  1. Sopwith Baby. (2010, October 12). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:22, November 16, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sopwith_Baby&oldid=390358068
  2. Holmes, Tony (2005). Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide. London: Harper Collins. p. 44. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  3. Lamberton, W.M. (1960). Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War. Herts: Harleyford Publications Ltd..

British Floatplanes 1916

Short Type 166 Floatplane

Short Admiralty Type 166 - 1916
Short Admiralty Type 166 - 1916

The Short Type 166 was a British two-seat reconnaissance, bombing and torpedo carrying folder seaplane designed by Short Brothers.

The Short Type 166 was designed as a "folder" aircraft to operate from the Ark Royal as a torpedo-bomber. Six aircraft, known within Shorts as the Type A, were originally ordered before the outbreak of World War I and assigned the Admiralty serial numbers 161 to 166. As was normal at the time, the type was designated the Admiralty Type 166 after the naval serial number of the last aircraft in the batch. Sometimes the aircraft are referred to as the Short S.90 (S.90 was the manufacturer's serial number of the first aircraft, naval serial 161).
[Read more]

Short Type 166
  • Type: Torpedo-bomber and reconnaissance floatplane
  • Country: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Short Brothers
  • First Flight: 1916
  • Primary User: Royal Naval Air Service
  • Number Built: 26
  • Wingspan: 57 ft 3 in (17.45 m)
  • Wing area: 575 ft² (53.5 m²)
  • Length: 40 ft 7 in (12.38 m)
  • Height: 14 ft 0¾ in (4.29 m)
  • Empty weight: 3,500 lb (1,589 kg)
  • Gross weight: 4580 lb (2080 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Salmson twin row radial, 200 hp (149 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 65 mph (105 km/h)
  • Endurance: 4 hours
  • Crew: 2

References

  1. Short Type 166. (2009, November 1). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:10, November 16, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Short_Type_166&oldid=323298858
  2. Barnes C.H. and James D.N (1989). Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam. pp. 560. ISBN 0-85177-819-4.
  3. Bruce, J.M. (1957). British Aeroplanes 1914-18. London: Putnam.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions.

Air Department AD Seaplane Type 1000

Air Department AD Seaplane Type 1000
Air Department AD Seaplane Type 1000 - 1916

The AD Seaplane Type 1000 also known as the Admiralty Type 1000 and the AD.1 (from Air Department) was a British seaplane of the First World War designed to attack German warships. When it first flew, it was the largest British aircraft yet to take to the air.

The design of the AD.1 was by Harris Booth of the Admiralty's Air Department just prior to World War I. It was the world's first aircraft designed from scratch as a torpedo bomber, one of the three planned versions of the plane. The other two were a bomber and a plane armed with a recoilless Davis 12-pounder gun (approximately 76 mm calibre).

The aircraft was a float-equipped biplane of pod-and-boom design, with engines mounted at the front of both booms, as well as at the rear of the crew pod. Development began in 1915; it was completed and flown for the first time during the summer of 1916. It was found that the Davis gun would project a blast rearwards so the weapon was changed for a conventional 12-pounder "Naval Landing Gun" though in practice a gun was never installed in the AD.1.
[Read more]

AD Seaplane Type 1000
  • Type: Torpedo bomber, bomber
  • Manufacturer: J. Samuel White
  • Designed by: Harris Booth
  • First flight: 1916
  • Primary user: Royal Naval Air Service
  • Number built: 1
  • Powerplant:
    • 3 × Hispano-Suiza rotary engines, 100 hp (75 kW) each
    • or
    • 1 × Smith Static 10-cylinder air-cooled radial engine 150hp
  • Wingspan: 115 ft (35.1 m)
  • Wing area: (33.82 m² 364.04 ft²
  • Length: 64 ft 3 in (19.6 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 9 in (3.89 m)
  • Empty weight: 22,352 lb (10,160 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 27,900 lb (12,700 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 73 knots (84 mph, 135 km/h)
  • Range: 481 nm (553 mi, 885 km)
  • Service ceiling: 4,900 ft (1,500 m)
  • Crew: 5
  • Armament:
    • Gun: × 12 pdr gun
    • or
    • Torpedoes: 2 × 14 in, 810 lb (360 mm, 367 kg) torpedoes

References

  1. "Big Guns". Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. http://www.webcitation.org/5klUXJycs.
  2. http://www.localhistory.scit.wlv.ac.uk/Museum/Transport/planes/SunbeamEngines4.htm Accessed 29 January 2007
  3. AD Seaplane Type 1000. (2010, April 27). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:18, July 5, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=AD_Seaplane_Type_1000&oldid=358555548
  4. Goodall, Mike. "Wight Elephants: Murray Sueter's Quest for a Large Military Aircraft". Air Enthusiast, No. 73, January/February 1998. Stamford, Lincs, UK:Key Publishing. ISSN 0143 5450. pp.14-19.
  5. Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914. London:Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.

Port Victoria P.V.2

Port Victoria PV.2 - 1916
Port Victoria P.V.2 - 1916

The Port Victoria P.V.2 was a British prototype floatplane fighter of the First World War, designed and built at the Royal Naval Air Service's Port Victoria Marine Experimental Aircraft Depot on the Isle of Grain. Only a single aircraft was built, with the type not being chosen for production.

The Port Victoria Depot's second design, designated Port Victoria P.V.2 was a floatplane fighter intended to intercept German Zeppelins. The P.V.2 was a small single engined biplane, powered by a Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine driving a four blage propellor. It was of wood and fabric construction, and of sesquiplane configuration, i.e. with its lower wing much smaller than its upper wing (both of which used the high-lift wing sections pioneered by the P.V.1). Unusually, the aircraft's wing bracing struts also carried the aircraft's floats, forming a "W" shape when viewed from the front. The upper wing was attached directly to the top of the fuselage, giving a good field of fire for the intended armament of a single 2-lb Davis gun recoiless gun.
[Read more]

Port Victoria P.V.2
  • Role: Floatplane Fighter
  • National Origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Port Victoria Marine Experimental Aircraft Depot
  • First Flight: 16 June 1916
  • Status: Prototype only
  • Number Bbuilt: 1
  • Powerplant: 1× Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wingspan: 29 ft 0 in (8.84 m)
  • Wing Area: 180 ft² (16.7 m²)
  • Length: 22 ft 0 in (6.71 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 4 in (2.85 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,211 lb (550 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,702 lb (774 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 81 knots (93 mph, 150 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Climb to 3,000 ft (915 m): 6 min
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns above upper wing.

References

  1. "Port Victoria P.V.2". (2010, September 15). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23:34, November 8, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Port_Victoria_P.V.2&oldid=385055205
  2. "Port Victoria P.V.2 1916" Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 23:33, November 8, 2010, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/portvictoria_pv-2.php
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith Tabloid,Schneider and Baby: Historic Military Aircraft No.17 Part IV". Flight, 29 November 1957. pp. 845848.
  4. Collyer, David. "Babies Kittens and Griffons". Air Enthusiast, Number 43, 1991. Stamford, UK:Key Publishing. ISSN 0143 5450. pp. 5055.
  5. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland:Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.

British Floatplanes 1917

British Fairey Campania Floatplane

Fairey Campania - 1917
British Fairey Campania Floatplane - 1917

The Fairey Campania two-seat seaplane got its name from the ex-Cunard ocean liner Campania which the Admiralty had converted into a seaplane carrier during the winter of 1914-15.

Fairey designed the Campania floatplane in response to the Royal Navy's specification for a purpose-built, two-seat patrol and reconnaissance aircraft. The initial prototype first flew on 16 February 1917. This was the first of two prototypes, designated F.16 which was powered by a 250 hp (190 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle IV. The second prototype was powered by a 275 hp (205 kW) Eagle V engine, it was designated F.17. Both prototypes would later see active service operating from Scapa Flow.

Production aircraft, powered by a 186.3kW Sunbeam Maori II or 186.3-257kW Rolls-Royce Eagle engine, entered service in 1917 and eventually operated as armed-reconnaissance aircraft from the carriers Campania, Nairana and Pegasus and from coastal bases until the Armistice, thereafter also seeing action in Russia. A total of about 60 Campanias were built from the contracts placed with Fairey (f50 aircraft in two batches), Barclay Curie and Company (50) and Frederick Sage and Company / Sunbeam Motor Car Company (70).

Fairey Campania F.17
  • Type: Carrier-borne patrol and reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Fairey Aviation
  • First flight : February 16, 1917
  • Retired: August 1919
  • Primary Users:
    • Royal Naval Air Service
    • Royal Air Force
  • Number Built: 62
  • Powerplant: 1 × Sunbeam Maori II water cooled V-12 engine, 260 hp (194 kW)
  • Wingspan: 61 ft 7 in (18.77 m)
  • Wing area: 674.6 ft² (62.3 m²)
  • Length: 43 ft 1 in (13.11 m)
  • Height: 15 ft 1 in (4.59 m)
  • Empty Weight: 3,672 lb (1,669 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 5,329 lb (2,422 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 74 kn (85 mph, 137 km/h) at sea level
  • Service Ceiling: 6,000 ft (1,981 m)
  • Wing Loading: 7.90 lb/ft² (38.9 kg/m²)
  • Power/Mass: 0.049 hp/lb (0.080 kW/kg)
  • Endurance: 4 hr 30 min
  • Climb to: 2000 ft (610m) 7 mins
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun on Scarff ring in rear cockpit
    • Bombs: Up to 6 × 116 lb (53 kg) bombs under wings and fuselage.

References

  1. Fairey Campania. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:14, November 16, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fairey_Campania&oldid=360035355
  2. Munson, Kenneth. Flying Boats and Seaplanes since 1910. Blandford.
  3. Nick Baron. The King of Karelia. Col P.J. Woods and the British Intervention in North Russia 1918-1919. A History and Memoir. London, 2007. P. 185.
  4. Taylor, H.A. Fairey Aircraft since 1915. London:Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-370-00065-x.

Port Victoria PV.5

Port Victoria PV.5 - 1917
Port Victoria PV.5

Shortly after the Depot initiated work on the P.V.4, it was asked to develop a single-seat fighter seaplane also capable of performing light bombing tasks with two internally-stowed 30kg bombs. To meet this requirement, two different aircraft were designed and built, the P.V.5 and the P.V.5a. The former was developed from the P.V.2bis and employed a similar sesquiplane wing cellule devoid of flying wires and braced by struts to the float undercarriage. The wings employed a high-lift aerofoil section, the armament comprised a single synchronised 7.7mm machine gun plus the two 30kg bombs specified and power was provided by a 150hp Hispano- Suiza engine. Fitted with pontoon-type floats rather than the Linton Hope floats for which it had been designed, the P.V.5 was flight tested in mid-1917 with promising results, but the original requirement had been overtaken and development was discontinued.

Port Victoria PV.5
  • Type: Single seat floatplane
  • National Origin: Britian
  • First Flight: 1917
  • Manufacturer: RNAS Marine Experimental Depot, Port Victoria
  • Status: Prototype
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hispano- Suiza engine 150hp
  • Wingspan: 32 ft 0 in (9.75 m)
  • Wing Area: 244.99 ft² (22.76 m²)
  • Length: 26 ft 6 in (7.77 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 9 in (2.97 m)
  • Take-off Weight: 2456 lb (1114 kg)
  • Empty Weight: 1788 lb (811 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 94 mph (151 km/h)
  • Crew: one
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers gun
    • Bombs: 2 × internally-stowed 30kg bombs

References

  1. "Port Victoria P.V.5 1917" Virtual Aircraft Museum Retreived from http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/portvictoria_pv-5.php
  2. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland:Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  3. Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "The Complete Book of Fighters". London: Salamander Books, 1994. ISBN 0-83173-939-8.
  4. Bruce, J.M. British "Aeroplanes 1914-18". London:Putnam, 1957.

Port Victoria P.V.9

Port Victoria PV.9 - 1917
Port Victoria PV.9

The Port Victoria P.V.9 was a British single-seat biplane floatplane fighter of the First World War. Although claimed to be the best aircraft of its type yet to be tested, only a single prototype was built.

In mid-1917, the RNAS Marine Experimental Aircraft Depot at Port Victoria on the Isle of Grain was instructed to build a new single-seat floatplane fighter as a possible replacement for the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS)'s Sopwith Babys. The new aircraft was to combine the good manoeuvrability and pilot view of Port Victoria's earlier P.V.2 floatplane with superior speed.

Like the P.V.2, the new design, the Port Victoria P.V.9 was a single-engined sesquiplane (i.e. a biplane with its lower wing much smaller than its upper wing) braced with faired steel tubes. The fuselage, wider than that of the P.V.2, was mounted between the upper and lower wings, almost filling the inter-wing gap, giving an excellent view for the pilot. Armament was a Vickers machine gun synchronised to fire through the propeller disc, with a Lewis gun mounted above the upper wing firing over the propeller. Power was provided by a Bentley BR1 rotary engine. While the designers had hoped to use the same high-lift aerofoil section as used in the P.V.2, this was rejected by the Admiralty, who demanded the use of the more conventional RAF 15 aerofoil, which resulted in a larger aircraft with a reduced climb rate and ceiling.
[Read more]

Port Victoria P.V.9
  • Role: Floatplane fighter
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: RNAS Marine Experimental Aircraft Depot
  • First flight: December 1917
  • Number built: 1
  • Status: Prototype
  • Powerplant: 1 × Bentley BR1 9-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, 150 hp (110 kW)
  • Upper wingspan: 30 ft 11 in (9.42 m)
  • Lower wingspan: 20 ft 1 in (6.12 m)
  • Wing area: 227 ft² (21.1 m²)
  • Airfoil: RAF 15
  • Length: 25 ft 2 in (7.67 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 0 in (2.74 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,404 lb (637 kg)
  • Gross weight: 1,965 lb (891 kg)
  • Fuel capacity: 34.5 Imp Gallons
  • Maximum speed: 110.5 mph (177.8 km/h; 96.0 kn) at 2,000 ft (610 m)
  • Service ceiling: 11,500 ft (3,505 m)
  • Time to altitude: 3 min 10 s to 2,000 ft (610 m), 27 min 20 s to 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7mm) synchronised Vickers machine gun and 1× 0.303 in (7.7mm) Lewis gun above upper wing

References

  1. "Port Victoria P.V.9". (2010, September 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:02, November 9, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Port_Victoria_P.V.9&oldid=385587893
  2. "Port Victoria P.V.9 1917" Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 00:03, November 9, 2010, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/portvictoria_pv-9.php
  3. "Port Victoria PV.9" (in Russian) http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fww1/pv9.html
  4. Bruce, J.M. British "Aeroplanes 1914-18". London:Putnam, 1957.
  5. Collyer, David. "Babies Kittens and Griffons". Air Enthusiast, Number 43, 1991. Stamford, UK:Key Publishing. ISSN 0143 5450. pp. 50-55.
  6. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland:Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.

Short Type 320

Short Admiralty Type 320 - 1917
Short Admiralty Type 320 - 1917

The Short Type 320, also known as the Short Admiralty Type 320 was a British two-seat reconnaissance, bombing and torpedo-carrying "folder" seaplane designed by Short Brothers.

The Short Type 320 was designed to meet an official requirement for a seaplane to carry a Mark IX torpedo. Larger than the earlier Short 184 it was a typical Short folder design of the time, with two-bay uneven span wings. Two prototypes were built powered by a 310 hp Sunbeam Cossack engine, and initially known as the Short 310 Type A from the engine fitted to the prototypes. When the torpedo bomber went into production it was powered by a 320 hp (238kW) Cossack engine which was the origin of the name the Type 320.

At the same time as Shorts were designing the 310 Type A torpedo bomber, they produced a similar design for a patrol floatplane, powered by the same Cossack engine and using the same fuselage, but with equal span three-bay wings instead of the uneven span wings of the torpedo bomber, known as the Short 310 Type B or North Sea Scout, with two prototypes ordered.
[Read more]

Short Admiralty Type 320
  • Role: Torpedo-bomber and reconnaissance floatplane
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Short Brothers, Sunbeam Motor Car Company
  • First flight: 1916
  • Introduced: 1917
  • Primary user:
    • Royal Naval Air Service
    • Royal Air Force
  • Number built: 127
  • Powerplant: 1 × Sunbeam Cossack 12 cylinder inline water-cooled piston engine, 320 hp (240 kW)
  • Wingspan: 75 ft 0 in (22.86 m)
  • Wing area: 810 ft² (75.3 m²)
  • Length: 45 ft 9 in (13.95 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 6 in (5.34 m)
  • Empty weight: 4,933 lb (2.242 kg)
  • Gross weight: 7,014 lb (3,188 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 72.5 mph (117 km/h)
  • Endurance: 6 hours
  • Service ceiling: 3,000 ft (915 m)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • 1 × 1,000lb (450 kg) Torpedo
    • or
    • 2 × 230 lb bombs
    • 1 machine gun

References

  1. "Short Type 320". (2009, December 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:21, December 8, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Short_Type_320&oldid=333372384
  2. Royal Air Force Museum Aircraft Thesaurus http://www.mda.org.uk/aircraft/16000.htm#16023
  3. Barnes, C.H. (1967). "Shorts Aircraft since 1900", pp.130-134. London: Putnam.
  4. Bruce, J.M. "The Short Seaplanes: Historic Military Aircraft No. 14 Part III". Flight (28 December 1956): pp.999-1004. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1956/1956%20-%201835.html.
  5. Bruce, J.M. "The Short Seaplanes: Historic Military Aircraft No. 14 Part 4". Flight (4 January 1957): pp.23-24. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1957/1957%20-%200023.html.
  6. Bruce, J.M. (1957). "British Aeroplanes 1914-18", pp.502-503. London: Putnam.
  7. Jefford, C.G. (1988). "RAF Squadrons", page 138. Airlife Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1 85310 053 6.
  8. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.