Airco DH.6

Airco D.H.6 - 1916
Airco D.H.6 - 1916

The Airco DH.6 was a British military trainer biplane used by the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War. Known by various nicknames, including the "Skyhook", the trainer became a widely used light civil aircraft in the postwar era.

The DH.6 was specifically designed as a military trainer, at a time when it was usual for obsolete service types to be used in this role. Geoffrey de Havilland seems to have had two design criteria in mind. The first was that it should be cheap and easy to build, and above all, simple to repair after the mishaps common in ab-initio training. The top and bottom wings were "brutally" square cut, and were interchangeable. (Hence the roundels in unconventional positions on many wartime photographs of the type.) They were heavily cambered, and braced with cables rather than streamlined wires. On the original version of the type there was no stagger. Even the rudder, on the prototype of the usual curved de Havilland outline, was on production machines cut square. The fuselage structure was a straight box with no attempt at refinement of outline – instructor and pupil sat in tandem on basketwork seats in a single cockpit that was Spartan even by the standards of the time.
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Airco DH.6
  • Role: Trainer/General second line duties
  • Manufacturer: Airco
  • Designed by: Geoffrey de Havilland
  • First flight: 1916
  • Primary users:
    • Royal Flying Corps
    • Royal Air Force
  • Number built: >2,280
  • Variants:
    • DH.6: Two-seat training aircraft.
    • DH.6A: Modified to improve stability for patrol duties.
  • Length: 27 ft 3½ in (8.32 m)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 11 in (10.95 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 9½ in (3.29 m)
  • Wing area: 436 ft² (40.5 m²)
  • Empty weight: 1,460 lb (664 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2,030 lb (923 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1× RAF 1a air-cooled V8 engine, 90 hp (70 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 70 mph (61 kn, 113 km/h)
  • Stall speed: 40 mph (35 kn, 64 km/h)
  • Rate of climb: 225 ft/min (1.1 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 4.66 lb/ft² (22.8 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.044 hp/lb (0.076 kW/kg)
  • Endurance: 2¾ hours
  • Armament: Usually none - although a few small bombs sometimes carried on anti-submarine patrol.

References

  1. Airco DH.6. (2010, June 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:09, October 15, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Airco_DH.6&oldid=369935996
  2. Baker, David. William Avery "Billy" Bishop: The Man and the Aircraft He Flew. London: The Outline Press, 1990. ISBN 1-871547-07-5.
  3. Boughton, Terence. The Story of the British Light Aeroplane. London: John Murray, 1963.
  4. Cheesman, E.F. Reconnaissance and Bomber Aircraft of the 1914--1918 War. Letchworth, UK: Harleyford Publications, 1962.
  5. Jackson, A.J. De Havilland Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1987. ISBN 0-87021-896-4.
  6. Jackson, A.J. De Havilland Aircraft since 1915. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1962. No ISBN.
  7. Lee, Arthur Gould. No Parachute. London, Jarrolds, 1968.
  8. Lewis, Cecil. Sagittarius Rising. London, Peter Davies, 1936.
  9. Robertson, Bruce. AMC DH6 (Windsock Datafile 103). Berkhamsted, Herts, UK: Albatros Productions, Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-902207-58-0.
  10. Taylor, John W.R. "Airco DH.6". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  11. Taylor, Michael J.H. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions, 1989, p. 45. ISBN 0-517-10316-8.

Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.8 - 1916
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8

The aircraft, originally designated the F.K.7, was designed by Dutch aircraft designer Frederick Koolhoven as a replacement for the Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c and the Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3. It was a sturdier aircraft than the F.K.3, with a larger fuselage and wings and was powered by a 160 hp (110 kW) Beardmore water-cooled engine. The undercarriage used oleo shock absorbers. The undercarriage was unable to withstand rough use on the frontline airfields. The observer was equipped with a Scarff ring mounting for a 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis machine gun. No armament was initially provided for the pilot. The rudder featured a long, pointed horn-balance.

In service the F.K.8s (nicknamed the "Big Ack") proved to be effective and dependable. It proved to be fairly successful in performing reconnaissance, artillery spotting, ground-attack, contact-patrol and day and night bombing missions. It was easier to fly than the R.E.8 and was sturdier but its performance was even more mediocre and it shared the inherent stability that plagued many Royal Aircraft Factory types.
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Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8
  • Role: Bomber/Reconnaissance aircraft
  • First Flight: May 1916
  • Designed By: Frederick Koolhoven
  • Manufacturer: Armstrong Whitworth
  • Developed From: Armstrong Whitworth F.K.7
  • Primary Users: Royal Flying Corps
  • Powerplant: 1× Beardmore 120 hp 6-cylinder inline piston engine, 160 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 43 ft 6 in (13.26 m)
  • Wing Area: 540 ft² (50.17 m²)
  • Length: 31 ft 5 in (9.58 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 11 in (3.33 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,916 lb (869 kg)
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 2,811 lb (1,275 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 83 kn (95 mph, 153 km/h) at sea level
  • Service Ceiling: 13,000 ft (3,960 m)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × fixed, forward firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers machine gun
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × flexibly mounted 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun
    • Bombs: up to 260 lb (118 kg) bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Military Wing). London: Putnam and Company, 1982. ISBN 0-370-30084-X.
  3. Mason, Francis K. "The British Bomber Since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  4. Munson, Kenneth. "Aircraft of World War I". London: Ian Allan, 1967. ISBN 0-7110-0356-4.
  5. Tapper, Oliver. "Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913". London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-826-7.
  6. Taylor, John W.R. "Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8." Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.

Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8

RAF RE.8 - 1916
Royal Aircraft Factory Reconnaissance Experimental 8

During World War I, the R.E.8 was the most widely used British two-seater biplane on the Western Front. A descendant of the R.E.7, it was initially developed for reconnaissance work but also saw service as a bomber and ground attack aircraft. Nicknamed "Harry Tate," it provided a stable platform for photographic missions but suffered from poor maneuverability, leaving it vulnerable to attack by enemy fighters.

The Royal Aircraft Factory Reconnaissance Experimental 8 (R.E.8) was a lumbering British two-seat biplane reconnaissance and bomber aircraft of the First World War. Intended as a replacement for the vulnerable B.E.2, the R.E.8 was much more difficult to fly, and was regarded with great suspicion at first in the Royal Flying Corps.
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Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8
  • Type: Reconnaissance, Bomber
  • Manufacturer: Royal Aircraft Factory
  • Entered Service: 1916
  • Number Built: 4,077
  • Length: 27 ft 10 in (8.5 m)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft 7 in (12.98 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 4 in (3.47 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,577 lb (717 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,862 lb (1,301 kg)
  • Powerplant:RAF 4a air-cooled 12-cylinder inline engine, 150 hp (110 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 102 mph (164 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 13,500 ft (4,115 m)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 1× 0.303 (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers gun
    • 1 or 2× 0.303 (7.7 mm) Lewis guns in rear cockpit
    • Bombs: up to 224 lb (102 kg)

References

  1. From Wikipedia Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Aircraft_Factory_R.E.8"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The R.E.8: Historic Military Aircraft: No. 8". Flight. 15 October 1954, pp. 575-581.
  3. Cheesman, E.F. (ed.) "Reconnaissance & Bomber Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War. Letchworth, UK: Harleyford, 1962.
  4. Gerdessen, F. "Estonian Air Power 1918-1945". Air Enthusiast No 18, April -July 1982, pp. 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  5. Mason, Francis K. "The British Bomber since 1914". London:Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  6. Munson, Kenneth. "Bombers, Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1914-1919". London: Blandford, 1968. ISBN 0-71370-484-5.
  7. Taylor, John W.R. "Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8." Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.

Sopwith one and a Half Strutter

Sopwith one and a Half Strutter - 1916
Sopwith one and a Half Strutter

The Sopwith 1½ Strutter was a British one or two-seat biplane multi-role aircraft of the First World War. It is significant as the first British-designed two seater tractor fighter, and the first British aircraft to enter service with a synchronised machine gun. It also saw widespread but rather undistinguished service with the French Aéronautique Militaire.

The first British fighter equipped with a fixed, forward firing, synchronized machine gun, the Sopwith 1½ Strutter was built in both one and two-seater models. In the latter version, the gas tank was dangerously positioned between the pilot and observer.

This design flaw prompted some airmen to joke that the designer of the aircraft must surely have been German. Not long after its introduction, the 1½ Strutter was replaced by the Sopwith Pup.

Sopwith 1.5 Strutter
  • Type: Fighter; later used for reconaissance/bombing
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • First Introduced: 1916
  • Number Built: About 6000
  • Powerplant: Clerget 9B rotary engine, 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Wing Span: 33 ft 6 in (10.21 m)
  • Length: 25 ft 3 in (7.70 m)
  • Height: Height: 10 ft 3 in (3.12 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,305 lb (593 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,149 lb (975 kg)
  • Max Speed: 161 kmh
  • Service Ceiling: 100 mph (87 knots, 161 km/h) at 6,500 ft (1,980 m)
  • Endurance: 3.75 hours
  • Crew: 1or 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns:
    • 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers machine gun with Ross interrupter gear
    • 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in observer's cockpit
    • Bombs: Up to 130 lb (60 kg) bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith 1½ Strutter "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_1%C2%BD_Strutter"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith 1½ Strutter: Historic Military Aircraft No. 14 Part I." Flight, 28 September 1956, pp. 542-546.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith 1½ Strutter: Historic Military Aircraft No. 14 Part II." Flight, 5 October 1956, pp. 586-591.
  4. "
  5. Bruce J.M. "British Aeroplanes 1914-18". London:Putnam, 1957.
  6. Bruce, J.M. "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Military Wing). London: Putnam, 1982. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  7. Gerdessen, F. "Estonian Air Power 1918-1945". Air Enthusiast No 18, April -July 1982, pp. 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  8. Jarrett, Philip. "Database:The Sopwith 1½ Strutter". Aeroplane, December 2009, Vol 37 No 12, Issue No 440. London:IPC. ISSN 0143-7240. pp.55-70.
  9. Kopan'ski, Tomasz Jan. "Samoloty brytyjskie w lotnictwie polskim 1918-1930" (British aircraft in the Polish air force 1918-1930) (in Polish). Warsaw: Bellona, 2001. ISBN 83-11-09315-6.
  10. Lake, Jon. "The Great Book of Bombers: The World's Most Important Bombers from World War I to the Present Day". St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Company, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1347-4.
  11. Swanborough, F.G. and Peter Bowers. "United States Military Aircraft since 1909". London: Putnam, 1963.
  12. Swanborough Gordon and Peter Bowers. "United States Navy Aircraft since 1911". London: Putnam, Second edition 1976. ISBN 0-370-10054-9.
  13. Taylor, John W.R. "Sopwith 1½ Strutter". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  14. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London: Putnam, Fourth edition 1978. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  15. Visatkas, C. "The Annals of Lithuanian Aviation". Air Enthusiast, Number Twenty-nine, November 1985-February 1986, pp. 61-66. Bromley, UK:Fine Scroll. ISSN 0143-5450.

Vickers F.B.14

Vickers F.B.12
Vickers F.B.14

The Vickers F.B.14 was a British two-seat fighter/reconnaissance biplane designed and built by Vickers Limited. About 100 were built for the Royal Flying Corps but saw only limited use as it was designed for a larger engine which was not available when production commenced and it did not meet performance expectations.

The F.B.14 was a conventional single-bay biplane with two tandem open cockpits and a fixed tailskid landing gear. It was designed to use a new engine, the 230 hp (170 kW) BHP inline engine (later to become the Siddeley Puma). The steel-tube airframe was completed in mid-1916, but the engine was not ready and it was fitted with a 160 hp (120 kW) Beardmore engine instead. The aircraft was underpowered with the Beardmore engine and suffered reliability problems and over 50 production aircraft were delivered to the Royal Flying Corps without engines. A more reliable engine was tested, but the 120 hp (90 kW) Beardmore did not help meet the performance required. Attempts to fit alternate engines resulted in a number of variants with the most successful being a Rolls-Royce Eagle IV Vee engine. The aircraft performance was inferior to the contempary Bristol F.2B, however, and further development of the F.B.14 was abandoned.
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Vickers F.B.14
  • Role: Fighter, reconnaissance biplane
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Vickers
  • First flight: 1916
  • Primary user: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number built: 100+
  • Powerplant: 1 × Beardmore engine, 160 hp (119 kW)
  • Wingspan: 39 ft 6 in (12.04 m)
  • Wing area: 427 ft² (39.7 m²)
  • Length: 28 ft 5 in (8.66 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 0 in (3.05 m)
  • Empty weight: 1662 lb (755 kg)
  • Gross weight: 2603 lb (1183 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 99.5 mph ( km/h)
  • Endurance: 3 hours 45 min
  • Service ceiling: 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • 1 × forward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun
    • 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun fitted on a Scarff ring in rear cockpit

References

  1. Vickers F.B.14. (2010, September 16). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:37, December 29, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vickers_F.B.14&oldid=385148999
  2. Andrews, C.F.; Morgan, E.B. (1988). Vickers Aircraft since 1908 (Second ed.), p.71-72, p.75. London: Putnam. ISBN 0 85177 815 1.
  3. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions.
  4. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing.