Airco DH.1

Airco DH.1 - 1915
Airco DH.1

The Airco DH.1 was an early military biplane flown by Britain's Royal Flying Corps during World War I.

Geoffrey de Havilland was one of the pioneering designers at the Royal Aircraft Factory and was partially or wholly responsible for most pre-war "Factory" designs. When he left to become chief designer at The Aircraft Manufacturing Company (Airco) in 1914, his first design was strongly reminiscent of the F.E.2b, one of his last designs for the Royal Aircraft Factory. Like the F.E.2, the DH.1 was of pusher configuration, the aircraft accommodating its pilot and observer in two open tandem cockpits in the nose, the observer's cockpit stepped down below the pilot's and equipped with a machine gun. The wings were of typical fabric-covered, two-bay, unstaggered, unswept, equal span design, while the stabiliser and rudder were carried on the end of a long, open-framework boom.
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Airco DH.1
  • Type: Two seat fighter / General purpose aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Airco
  • Designed by: Geoffrey de Havilland
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Introduced: 1915
  • Retired: 1918
  • Primary User: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number Built: aproximately 170
  • Powerplant: 1× Renault, Inline air-cooled, upright, 90 degree, V-8 piston engine 70 hp (50 kW)
  • Wingspan: 41 ft 0 in (12.50 m)
  • Wing Area: 426 ft² (39.6 m²)
  • Length: 28 ft 11.625 in (8.83 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 4 in (3.46 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,356 lb (616 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,044 lb (927 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 80 mph (70 kn, 130 km/h)
  • Rate of Climb: 350 ft/min (1.7 m/s)
  • Crew: two (pilot and observer)
  • Armament: 1 × trainable 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun for observer

References

  1. From Wikipedia Airco DH.1, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airco_DH.1"
  2. Cheesman, E.F. (ed.) "Reconnaissance & Bomber Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth, UK: Harleyford, 1962.
  3. Grey, C.G. "Jane's all the world's aircraft 1919" (reprint). New York: Arco Publishing Company, 1969. ISBN 0-0001-890-1.
  4. Jackson, A.J. "De Havilland Aircraft since 1909". London:Putnam, Third edition, 1987. ISBN 0 85177 802 X.
  5. Taylor, Michael J.H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation", 1989 edition. London: Studio Editions, 1989, p. 45. ISBN 0-51710-316-8.

Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3

Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3 - 1915
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3

The Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3 was a British two-seat general-purpose biplane built by Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft.

The Dutch aircraft designer Frederick Koolhoven joined Armstrong Whitworth in 1914. He designed a series of aircraft that had his initials in their designation. The F.K.3 followed the basic layout of the Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c, which Armstrong Whitworth were building for the Royal Flying Corps. It was designed as an improvement, with a simplified structure that was easier to build. The prototype, first flown by Norman Spratt was powered by a 70 hp (52 kW) air-cooled Renault 70 hp V-8. This aircraft differed from the B.E.2 in eliminating welded joints and complex metal components in the structure, and having greater dihedral on the upper wing. It retained the seating layout of the B.E.2, with separate cockpits for the pilot and observer, with the latter in front. An initial batch of seven aircraft to this standard, sometimes referred to as the F.K.2 were built.
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Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3
  • Role: General purpose / Trainer aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft
  • Designed by: Frederick Koolhoven
  • First flight: 1915
  • Primary user: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number built: c.500
  • Developed from: Royal Aircraft Factory BE.2
  • Powerplant: 1 × RAF 1A inline piston engine, 90 hp (67 kW)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft (12.19 m)
  • Wing area: 442 ft² (41.1 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft (8.84 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 11 in (3.63 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,386 lb (629 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 2,056 lb (983 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 77 kn (89 mph, 143 km/h) at sea level
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 ft (3,660 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 5,000 ft in 19 min
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun in rear cockpit
    • or
    • up to 112 lb (51 kg) bombs (if flown as single seater)

References

  1. Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3. (2011, January 21). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:53, January 29, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armstrong_Whitworth_F.K.3&oldid=409160749
  2. Bruce, J. M. (1982). The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps, pp. 9093 (Military Wing). London: Putnam. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  3. Mason, Francis K. (1994). The British Bomber since 1914, p.41. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
  4. Tapper, Oliver (1973). Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913, pp. 52-8, pp. 367. London: Putnam Publishing. ISBN 0 370 10004 2.

Royal Aircraft Factory FE-2d

RAF FE-2d - 1915
Royal Aircraft Factory Farman Experimental 2

The Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2 was a two-seat pusher biplane that was operated as a day and night bomber and as a fighter aircraft by the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War. Along with the single-seat D.H.2 pusher biplane and the Nieuport 11, the F.E.2 was instrumental in ending the Fokker Scourge that had seen the German Air Service establish a measure of air superiority on the Western Front from the late summer of 1915 to the following spring.
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RAF F.E.2d
  • Type: Fighter/Bomber
  • Manufacturer: Royal Aircraft Factory
  • First Introduced: 1915
  • Number Built: About 1,000
  • Powerplant: Beardmore water cooled 6 cylinder in-line 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wing Span: 47 ft 9 in (14.56m)
  • Length: 32 ft 3 in (9.83 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 7.5 in (3.84 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2 061lb (935kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,037 lb (1,378 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 91.5 mph (150 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 11,000 ft (3,300m)
  • Endurance: 2 hr 30 min
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 2 or 3 × trainable 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2 "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Aircraft_Factory_F.E.2"
  2. Andrews, C.F. and "E.B. Morgan. Vickers Aircraft since 1908". London:Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0 85177 815 1.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The F.E.2 Series: Historic Military Aircraft:" No 3. Flight, 12 December 1952, pp. 724-728.
  4. Bruce, J.M. "Warplanes of the First World War: Fighters", Volume Two. London: MacDonald & Co., 1968. ISBN 0-365-01473-8.
  5. Cheesman, E.F. (ed.) "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth: Harleyford, 1960
  6. Mason, Francis K. "The British Bomber Since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  7. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter Since 1912". Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  8. Taylor, John W.R. "F.E.2b. Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  9. Winchester, Jim. "Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2. Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes" (Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.

Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.7

RAF RE.7 - 1915
Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.7

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.7 was a British two-seat light bomber and reconnaissance biplane designed by the Royal Aircraft Factory and built under contracts by the Coventry Ordnance Works, Austin, Napier and Siddeley-Deasy for the Royal Flying Corps.

Developed from the R.E.5 the R.E.7 was designed to carry heavier loads and also suitable for escort and reconnaissance duties. It was an-unequal span biplane with a fixed tailskid landing gear and powered by a nose-mounted 120hp (89kW) Beardmore engine driving a four-bladed propeller. The aircraft was built by a number of different contractors with the first aircraft operational with the Royal Flying Corps in France in early 1916. The aircraft had two open cockpits with the observer/gunner in the forward cockpit under the upper wing and the pilot aft.
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RAF R.E.7
  • Type: Light bomber and reconnaissance biplane
  • Manufacturer: Royal Aircraft Factory
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Introduced: 1915
  • Primary user: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number built: 230
  • Developed from: RAF R.E.5
  • Powerplant: 1 × RAF 4a Vee piston engine, 150 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 57 ft 0 in (17.37 m)
  • Wing Area: 548 ft² (50.91 m²)
  • Length: 31 ft 10.5 in (9.72 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 7 in (3.84 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2285 lb (1036 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3450 lb (1565 kg)
  • Service Ceiling: 6,500 ft (1980 m)
  • Endurance: 6 hours 0 min
  • Crew: 2 (pilot, observer/gunner)
  • Armament:
    • Bombs: 1 × 336lb (152kg) bomb or
    • Bombs: smaller bombs up to 324lb (147kg)

References

  1. From Wikipedia Royal Aircraft Factory RE-7, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Aircraft_Factory_R.E.7"
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft" (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing. pp. 2820.
  4. British Aircraft Directory

Vickers F.B.5 Gun Bus

Vickers F.B.5
Vickers Fighting Biplane 5 Gun Bus

The Vickers F.B.5 (Fighting Biplane 5) was the first aircraft specifically designed for air-to-air combat to see service as a fighter for the Royal Flying Corps, making it the world's first operational fighter aircraft. With its engine mounted behind the cockpit, it the first pusher to enter service during World War I. Commonly referred to as the "Gunbus," it was armed with a moveable, forward firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun operated by the observer in the front of the nacelle. Vulnerable to attack from the rear, the Gunbus was soon replaced by more advanced single-seat fighter aircraft. Lionel Rees scored more victories with this aircraft than any other ace. In 1915, he and his gunner downed six enemy planes while flying the F.B.5.
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Vickers F.B.5 Gun Bus
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Vickers Ltd (Aviation Department)
  • Entered Service: February 5, 1915
  • Number Built: 224
  • Powerplant: 1× Gnome Monosoupape air cooled 9-cylinder rotary engine, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wing Span: 36 ft 6 in (11.13 m)
  • Length: 27 ft 2 in (8.28 m)
  • Height: 11 ft (3.35 m)
  • Wing Area: 382 ft² (35.5 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 1,220 lb (555 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,050 lb (930 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 70 mph (61 knots, 113 km/h) at 5,000 ft (1,520 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 9,000 ft (2,743 m)
  • Climb: to 5,000 ft (1,520 m): 16 min
  • Wing Loading: 5.4 lb/ft² (26 kg/m²)
  • Power/Mass: 0.05 hp/lb (0.08 kW/kg)
  • Range: 250 mi (403 km)
  • Endurance: 4 hours 30 minutes
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 1 or 2 × trainable 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis guns in observer's cockpit

References

  1. From Wikipedia Vickers F.B.5, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vickers_F.B.5"
  2. Andrews, C.F. and Morgan, "E.B. Vickers Aircraft since 1908". London:Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0 85177 815 1.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "Vickers' First Fighters". Air Enthusiast No 12, April -July 1980. pp.54-70. ISSN 0143-5450.
  4. Gutmann, Jon and Dempsey, Harry. "Pusher Aces of World War 1". Osprey Pub Co, 2009. ISBN 1846034175, 9781846034176.