Avro 504

Avro 504 k
Avro 504 k

Fairly sturdy and easy to fly, the Avro 504 was used by the Royal Naval Air Service to conduct bombing raids into German territory at the beginning of the war. The first plane to strafe troops on the ground, it was also the first British plane to be shot down by enemy ground fire. Better aircraft soon replaced the Avro 504 in combat, but it remained the standard British trainer for the duration of the war.

Avro 504
  • Type: Fighter, Bomber, Trainer
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • Number Built :
  • First Introduced: July 1913
  • Engines:
    • Gnome Monosoupape, rotary, 100 hp
    • Le Rhône, rotary 110 hp. (82 kW)
    • Clerget 9B, 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Wing Span: 36 ft - 10.97 m
  • Length: 29 ft 6 in - 8.99 m
  • Height: 10 ft 5 in - 3.175 m
  • Empty Weight: 1,231 lb - 558.37 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 1,829 lb - 829.62 kg
  • Maximum Speed:
    • 82 mph - 131.97 kph(Gnome)
    • 95 mph - 152.89 kph (Le Rhône)
    • 94 mph - 151.28 kph (Clerget 9B)
  • Service Ceiling:
    • Le Rhône:16,000 ft - 4 876.8 m
    • Gnome:13,000 ft - 3 962.4 m
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 1 Lewis 0.303 machine gun

References

  1. Bruce, J.M. (9 July 1954). "The Avro 504: Historic Military Aircraft No. 8, Part I" (pdf). Flight: pp.41-44. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1954/1954%20-%201998.html.
  2. Bruce, J.M. (16 July 1954). "The Avro 504: Historic Military Aircraft No. 8, Part II" (pdf). Flight: pp.83-88. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1954/1954%20-%202060.html.
  3. Bruce, J. M. (1965)." Warplanes of the First World War - Fighter, Volume One", Great Britain. London: Macdonald.
  4. Donald, David (Editor) (1997). "The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft". Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  5. Holmes, Tony (2005). "Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide". London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  6. Jackson, A.J. (1990). "Avro Aircraft since 1908" (Second ed.). London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  7. Mason, Francis K (1992). "The British Fighter since 1912". Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  8. Mason, Francis K (1994). "The British Bomber since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
  9. Mikesh, Robert C.; Abe, Shorzoe (1990). "Japanese Aircraft 1910-1914". London: Putnam. ISBN 0 85177 840 2.
  10. Taylor, M J H (Editor) (1980). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". Jane's Publishing Company.

Blackburn Type L

Blackburn Type L - 1914
Blackburn Type L - 1914

The Blackburn Type L was a single-engine, two-seat biplane built for the 1914 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain seaplane race of 1914.

All six of Robert Blackburn's previous aircraft had been monoplanes and had suffered no structural problems, but during 1912 in both the UK and in Europe there had been enough monoplane structural failures for the RFC to ban them from service. There was a move to biplanes which Blackburn followed. The Type L, his first biplane and a seaplane was built specifically as a candidate for the Circuit of Britain Race, sponsored by the Daily Mail with a £5,000 winner's prize.
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Blackburn Type L
  • Role: racing seaplane
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co Ltd
  • Designed by: Robert Blackburn
  • First flight: 1914
  • Retired: 1915
  • Number built: 1
  • Powerplant: 1 × Salmson-Canton-Unné 9-cylinder water cooled radial. Power at 1,250 rpm, 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Wingspan: 49 ft 6 in (15.08 m)
  • Wing area: 481 ft² (44.7 m²)
  • Length: 32 ft 6 in (9.91 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 6 in (3.81 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,717 lb (779 kg)
  • Gross weight: 2,475 lb (1,123 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 81 mph (130 km/h)
  • Range: 445 miles (715 km)
  • Service ceiling: 11,00 ft (3,350 m)
  • Rate of climb: (to 5000ft (1,525 m)) 147 ft/min (0.75 m/s)
  • Crew: 2

References

  1. "Blackburn Type L". (2010, January 6). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10:27, February 12, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blackburn_Type_L&oldid=336154128
  2. "Daily Mail £5,000 prize". Flight (15 May 1914): p.518. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1914/1914%20-%200518.html.
  3. "The "Round Britain" machines". Flight (25 September 1914): pp.973-5. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1914/1914%20-%200973.html.
  4. "Aero engines in Paris Show, 1913.". Flight (21 February 1914): pp.191-2. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1914/1914%20-%200191.html.
  5. Jackson, A.J. (1968). Blackburn Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam Publishing. ISBN 0 370 00053 6.
  6. "Blackburn Aircraft. 2010": General Books LLC ISBN-13: 9781155327259

Bristol TB.8

Bristol TB 8H
Bristol TB.8H

The Bristol T.B.8 was an early (1913-14) British biplane built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, which was produced in significant numbers (54 were built) for the time. While mainly used as a trainer, T.B.8s were briefly used as bombers at the start of the First World War by the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS).

Henri Coanda, chief designer of the Bristol Aeroplane Company, developed the T.B.8 as a biplane development of his earlier Bristol-Coanda Monoplane to meet an order from the British Admiralty, the first aircraft, a conversion of a Bristol-Coanda monoplane, flying on 12 August 1913 . This aircraft was tested with both wheeled undercarriage and floats.

The T.B.8 was a single engined, two seat biplane, with two bay wings and a slender fuselage. While early T.B.8s used wing warping, later production aircraft were fitted with ailerons. They were normally fitted with a distinctive four wheel undercarriage. T.B.8s were powered by a variety of rotary engines, including Gnome and Le Rhône engines with power ranging from 50 hp Gnomes to 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engines . T.B.8s were produced both by conversion of Coanda Monoplanes, and by new production.
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Bristol TB.8
  • Type: Trainer
  • Manufacturer: Bristol Aeroplane Company
  • Designed By: Henri Coanda
  • First Flight: 1913
  • Introduced: 1913
  • Retired: 1916
  • Primary Users:
    • Royal Naval Air Service
    • Royal Flying Corps
    • Romanian Air Force
  • Number Built: 54
  • Developed From: Bristol-Coanda Monoplanes
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Rotary engine, 80hp (60 kW)
  • Wingspan: 37 ft 8 in (11.48 m)
  • Wing Area: 450 ft² (41.8 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft 3 in (8.92 m)
  • Empty weight: 970lb (441 kg)
  • Maxium Takeoff Weight: 1,665 lb (757 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 56-61 knots (65-70 mph, 105-113 km/h)
  • Climb to 3000 ft (915 m): 11 min
  • Endurance: 5 hours
  • Crew: Two
  • Armament: Light bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Bristol TB.8, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_TB.8"
  2. Mason, Francis K (1994). "The British Bomber since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
  3. Barnes, C.H. (1964). "Bristol Aircraft Since 1910" (First Edition ed.). London: Putnam.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 204.
  5. Thetford, Owen (1994). "British Naval Aircraft since 1912" (Fourth Edition ed.). London: Putnam. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
  6. Barnes, C.H. (1964). "Bristol Aircraft Since 1910" (First Edition ed.). London: Putnam. p.81-2, 85

RAF B.E.2

RAF BE.2 - 1914
Royal Aircraft Factory Blériot Experimental 2

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 (Blériot Experimental) was a British single-engine two-seat biplane in service with the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) during World War One. The B.E.2 has always had a very bad press, and had become an unpopular aircraft by 1916. From 1917 onwards, the B.E.2 was mostly withdrawn from the front line but continued in use for submarine spotting and as a trainer. Before this it had already been the first effective night fighter. About 3,500 were built, used as fighters, interceptors, light bombers, trainers and reconnaissance aircraft.

In August 1912, the Blériot Experimental 2 earned the highest marks in aircraft trials at Larkhill. During the competition, the two-seater broke the British altitude record, climbing to 10,560 feet. Equipped with a more powerful engine, the unarmed B.E.2a was introduced in 1913. A Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2a of No.2 Squadron RFC was the first aircraft of the Royal Flying Corps to arrive in France on 26 August 1914, after the start of the First World War. In 1915, when air combat began in earnest, squadrons equipped with the B.E.2c suffered heavy losses to more maneuverable enemy.
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RAF B.E.2
  • Type: Reconnaissance
  • Manufacturers:
    • Royal Aircraft Factory
    • Vickers Limited (Aviation Department)
    • British & Colonial Aeroplane Company, Ltd.
  • First Flight: February 1912
  • Entered Service: August 1914
  • Number Built: 3,535
  • Powerplant:
    • 1× RAF 1a, air cooled V-8 engine, 90 hp (67 kW)
    • Other engines depending on manufacturers and variant.
  • Wing Span: 37 ft (11.28 m)
  • Length: 27 ft 3 in (8.31 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 1 in (3.4 m)
  • Wing area: 398 ft² (37 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 1 369lb (621kg)
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 2,138 lb (972 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 72 mph (116 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 10,560 ft 3,050 m
  • Rate of Climb: 1,066 ft/min (325 m/min)
  • Range: 200 miles (320 km)
  • Endurance: 3 hr 15 min
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun for observer
    • Bombs: 224 lb (102 kg) of bombs
    • (With full bomb load usually flown as a single-seater, without machine gun)

References

  1. From Wikipedia Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Aircraft_Factory_B.E.2"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The B.E.2 Series: Historic Military Aircraft No.7, Part 1". Flight, 2 April 1954, pp. 393-397.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The B.E.2 Series: Historic Military Aircraft No.7,Part 2". Flight, 16 April 1954, pp. 478-482.
  4. Cheesman, E.F. (ed.). "Reconnaissance & Bomber Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth: Harleyford, 1962.
  5. Gerdessen, Frits. "Estonian Air Power 1918-1945". Air Enthusiast No. 18, April-July 1982, pp. 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  6. Munson, Kenneth. "Bombers, Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1914-1919". London: Blandford, 1968.

Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5

RAF RE.5 - 1914
Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5 was a British two-seat reconnaissance and artillery observation biplane designed and built by the Royal Aircraft Factory for the Royal Flying Corps.

The R.E.5 was designed as a reconnaissance biplane using the experience of earlier R.E. series aircraft. It was a two-bay equal-span biplane with a fixed tailskid landing gear, with the wheels supported on skids and powered by a nose-mounted 120 hp (89 kW) Austro-Daimler engine driving a four-bladed propeller. The aircraft had two open cockpits with the observer/gunner in the forward cockpit under the upper wing and the pilot aft. The larger more capable Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.7 was a further development of the design. Some modified single-seat high altitude aircraft were built with extended-span (57 ft 2.66 in or 17.43 m) upper wings supported by a pair of outward-leaning struts. Other R.E.5s were used for experimentation with airbrakes and for test flying the Royal Aircraft Factory 4 engine.
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Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5
  • Type: Reconnaissance and artillery observation biplane
  • Manufacturer: Royal Aircraft Factory
  • First Flight:1914
  • Introduced:1914
  • Primary User: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number Built: 24
  • Variants: Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.7
  • Powerplant: 1 × Austro-Daimler piston engine, 120 hp (89 kW)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 6 in (13.57 m)
  • Wing Area: 498 ft² ( m²)
  • Length: 26 ft 2 in (7.98 m)
  • Maximum Speed: 78 mph (126 km/h)
  • Crew: 2 (pilot, observer/gunner)
  • Armament: 3 × 20lb (9kg) bombs

References

  1. Rickard, J (16 April 2009), Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5 , "http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_RAF_RE5.html"
  2. From Wikipedia Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Aircraft_Factory_R.E.5"
  3. Bruce, J.M. (1957). "British Aeroplanes 1914-18". London: Putnam, pp.417-421.
  4. Bruce, J.M. (1992). "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Second ed.). London: Putnam pp.445-51. ISBN 0 85177 854 2.
  5. Lewis, Peter (1974). "The British Bomber since 1914" (Second ed.). London: Putnam, p.35, pp.402-403. ISBN 0 370 10040 9.
  6. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.
  7. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft" (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing. pp. 2820.