Martinsyde F4 Buzzard

Martinsyde F.4 Buzzard
Martinsyde F4 Buzzard

The Martinsyde F4 Buzzard was developed as a powerful and fast biplane fighter for the Royal Air Force (RAF), but the end of the First World War led to the abandonment of large-scale production. Fewer than 400 were eventually produced, with many exported. Of particular note was the Buzzard's high speed, being one of the fastest aircraft developed during World War I.

In 1917, George Handasyde of Martinsyde designed a single seat biplane fighter powered by a Rolls-Royce Falcon V-12 engine, the Martinsyde F.3, six being ordered in 1917, with the first flying in November that year. While its performance during testing was impressive, demonstrating a maximum speed of 142 mph (229 km/h) and described in an official report as "a great advance on all existing fighting scouts", all Falcon production was required to power Bristol F.2 Fighters, so no orders for the F.3 were placed.
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Martinsyde F4 Buzzard
  • Role: Biplane fighter
  • Manufacturer: Martinsyde
  • Designed By: George Handasyde
  • First flight: June 1918
  • Primary user: Royal Air Force
  • Number built: 370+
  • Powerplant: 1× Hispano-Suiza 8Fb inline engine, 300 hp (224 kW)
  • Wingspan: 32 ft 9.375 in (9.99 m)
  • Wing area: 320 ft² (29.7 m²)
  • Length: 25 ft 5.625 in (7.76 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 10 in (2.69 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,811 lb (823 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2,398 lb (1,090 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 146 mph (127 knots, 235 km/h) at sea level)
  • Service ceiling: 24,000 ft (7320 m)
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours
  • Climb to 10,000 ft (3,050 m): 7 min 55 sec
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns

References

  1. Martinsyde Buzzard. (2010, July 2). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:15, August 9, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Martinsyde_Buzzard&oldid=371411801
  2. "A Martinsyde for Newfoundland: The Type A Mark II, Sold to the Aerial Survey Company". Flight, 17 August 1922, pp. 463-465.
  3. "Another Interesting A.D.C. Modification: The 'Nimbus-Martinsyde'." Flight, 3 June 1926, pp. 315-317.
  4. Bruce, J.M. "War Planes of the First World War: Volume One Fighters". London: Macdonald, 1965.
  5. Donald, David, ed. "The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft". London: Blitz Editions, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  6. Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "The Complete Book of Fighters". New York: Smithmark, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  7. Holmes, Tony. "Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide". London: Harper Collins, 2005. ISBN 0-0071-9292-4.
  8. Jackson, A.J. "British Civil Aircraft since 1919", Volume 3. London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-818-6.
  9. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  10. "The Martinsyde A.D.C. I Single Seat Fighter". Flight, 27 November 1924, pp. 742-745.

Sopwith Cuckoo

Sopwith Cuckoo - 1918
Sopwith T.1 Cuckoo

The Sopwith T.1 Cuckoo was a British biplane torpedo bomber used by the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS), and its successor organization, the Royal Air Force (RAF). The T.1 was the first landplane specifically designed for carrier operations, but it was completed too late for service in the First World War. After the Armistice, the T.1 was named the Cuckoo.

In October 1916, Commodore Murray Sueter, the Air Department's Superintendent of Aircraft Construction, solicited Sopwith for a single-seat aircraft capable of carrying a 1,000 lb torpedo and sufficient fuel to provide an endurance of four hours. The resulting aircraft, designated T.1 by Sopwith, was a large, three-bay biplane. Because the T.1 was designed to operate from carrier decks, its wings were hinged to fold backwards. The T.1 could take off from a carrier deck in four seconds, but it was not capable of making a carrier landing and no arresting gear was fitted. A split-axle undercarriage allowed the aircraft to carry a 1,000 lb Mk. IX torpedo beneath the fuselage.

The prototype T.1 first flew in June 1917, powered by a 200 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ba engine. Official trials commenced in July 1917 and the Admiralty issued production orders for 100 aircraft in August. Contractors Fairfield Engineering and Pegler & Company had no experience as aircraft manufacturers, however, resulting in substantial production delays. Moreover, the S.E.5a had priority for the limited supplies of the Hispano-Suiza 8. Redesign of the T.1 airframe to accommodate the heavier Sunbeam Arab incurred further delays.
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T.1 Cuckoo Mk. I
  • Role: Torpedo bomber
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • Introduced: 1918
  • Retired: 1923
  • Primary user: Royal Air Force
  • Number built: 232
  • Variants:
    • Cuckoo Mk. I: Main production variant. Powered by a 200 hp (149 kW) Sunbeam Arab engine.
    • Cuckoo Mk. II: Mk. I converted to use a 200 hp (149 kW) Wolseley Viper engine.
    • Cuckoo Mk. III: Prototype powered by a 275 hp (205 kW) Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine.
    • Sopwith B.1: Single-seat bomber powered by a 200 hp (149 kW) Hispano-Suiza 8 engine. Two prototypes built.
  • Powerplant: 1× Sunbeam Arab V8 engine, 200 hp (149 kW)
  • Wingspan: 46 ft 9 in (14.25 m)
  • Wing area: 566 ft² (52.6 m²)
  • Length: 28 ft 6 in (8.68 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m)
  • Empty weight: 2,199 lb (1,000 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 3,883 lb (1,765kg)
  • Maximum speed: 105.5 mph (92 kts, 171 km/h)
  • Range: 291 nm (335 mi, 539 km)
  • Service ceiling: 12,100 ft (3,690 m)
  • Crew: one, pilot
  • Armament: 1× 18 inch Mk. IX torpedo

References

  1. Sopwith Cuckoo. (2011, March 1). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 05:13, June 7, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sopwith_Cuckoo&oldid=416498846
  2. Davis, Mick. "Sopwith Aircraft". Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 1999. ISBN 1-86126-217-5.
  3. Layman, R.D. "Naval Aviation In The First World War: Its Impact And Influence". London: Caxton, 2002. ISBN 1-84067-314-1.
  4. Robertson, Bruce. "Sopwith - The Man and His Aircraft". London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-90043-515-1.
  5. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft Since 1912". London: Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.

Sopwith Salamander

Sopwith Salamander - 1918
Sopwith Salamander

The Sopwith TF.2 Salamander was a British World War I ground attack aircraft which first flew in April 1918. The war ended before the type could enter squadron service, although two were in France in October 1918.

By 1917, the use of close support aircraft had become an essential part of an infantry attack. On the German side, specialist aircraft were designed specifically for the task, such as the Halberstadt CL.II and the armored Junkers J.I – the British however relied for this work on ordinary fighters such as the DH 5, and the Camel, and general purpose two seaters such as the F.K.8. Ground fire took a heavy toll of aircrew involved, and an equivalent to the armored German machines was sought. The first British aircraft to be built specifically for "ground strafing", as close support was known, was an armored version of the Camel, known by the company as the "TF.1" (for "trench fighter"). This did not go into production, but information gained in testing it was used for the Salamander design.
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Sopwith TF.2 Salamander
  • Type: Ground attack
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith
  • First Flight: 27 April 1918
  • Primary User: Royal Air Force
  • Produced: 1918-1919
  • Number Built : 419
  • Developed From: Sopwith Snipe
  • Powerplant: 1× Bentley BR2 rotary, air cooled 230 hp (172 kw)
  • Wingspan: 31 ft 3 in (9.53 m)
  • Wing Area: 272 ft² (25.27 m²)
  • Airfoil: Chord: 5 ft (1.5 m)
  • Length: 19 ft 6 in (5.94 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 4 in (2.84 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,844 lb (836 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,512 lb (1.140 kg)
  • Fuel: 29 gallons (110 litres)
  • Maximum Speed: 117 mph at 10,000 ft, 125 mph at low altitude (188 km/h at 3,048 m, 201 km/h at low altitude)
  • Service ceiling: 13,000 (4,000 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 17 minutes to 10,000 ft (3,048 m)
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
    • Bombs: 4 light bombs

References

  1. Sopwith Salamander. (2011, April 3). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 05:15, June 30, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sopwith_Salamander&oldid=422215356
  2. Bruce, Jack M., "The First British armoured Brigade", AIR International, Bromley, Kent, UK, April 1979, Volume 16, Number 4, page 185.
  3. "Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I". New York, New York: Military Press. 1990. pp. 87. ISBN 0-517-03376-3.
  4. Bruce, J.M. (1969). "War Planes of the First World War" (Vol.2). London: Macdonald. ISBN 0-356-01490-8.

Sopwith Snipe

Sopwith Snipe - 1918
Sopwith Snipe

A descendant of the Sopwith Camel, the Sopwith Snipe was equipped with a more powerful engine and provided better visibility from the cockpit. Though not much faster than the Camel, the Snipe had a better rate of climb and pilots found it much easier to fly.

On 27 October 1918, Canadian ace William Barker made the Sopwith Snipe famous in a single-handed battle with more than 60 enemy aircraft that earned him the Victoria Cross. Flying the Sopwith Snipe, Captain Elwyn King scored 7 victories making him the highest scoring ace to fly this aircraft.

Sopwith Snipe
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • Type: Fighter
  • First Introduced: 1918
  • Number Built: 497
  • Powerplant: Bentley B.R.2, air cooled rotary, 230 hp
  • Wing Span: 31 ft 1 in (9.47 m)
  • Length: 19 ft 2 in (5.84 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,305 lb (590 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,105 lb (955 kg)
  • Max Speed: 121 mph (195 km/h) - 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
  • Endurance: 3 hrs
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • Guns:Two 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
    • Bombs: Four 25 lb (11 kg) bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith Snipe, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Snipe"
  2. Franks, Norman. "Dolphin and Snipe Aces of World War I (Aircraft of the Aces)". London: Osprey Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-317-9.