Colt-Browning Mod.1895/1914

Colt-Browning Mod.1895/1914

The Colt-Browning M1895, nicknamed potato digger due to its unusual operating mechanism, is an air cooled, belt fed, gas operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute. Based on a John Moses Browning design dating to 1889, it was one of the first successful gas operated machine guns to enter service. Although it was considered obsolete by the time the United States entered the war; Italy purchased significant quantities of the Colt Model 1914 Browning in 6.5 mm caliber to supplement their machine gun supply.

Colt-Browning Model1895/1914
  • Country of Origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: Colt-Browning
  • Entered Service: 1914
  • Caliber: 0.306 in (6.5 mm)
  • Weight: 35.49 lb (16.1 kg)
  • Type: Gas Operated
  • Cooling Systm: Air Cooled
  • Ammunition Feed System: Belt fed
  • Rate of fire: 450 rpm
  • Hotchkiss M1914 Machine Gun

    Hotchkiss Gun

    The Mle 1914 Hotchkiss machine gun became the standard machine gun of the French Army during World War I. It was manufactured by the French arms company Hotchkiss et Cie.

    The Hotchkiss was gas actuated and air cooled. The barrel featured five large annular ribs which retarded overheating. The gas cylinder under the barrel featured a regulator piston used to adjust the rate of fire. The Hotchkiss had only 32 parts, including four coil springs and no screws or pins. The simplicity of construction made it easy to take apart and maintain. All parts of the gun were constructed to make improper assembly impossible. The Hotchkiss fired from an open bolt, a common method in all modern machine guns. Several hundred Hotchkiss M1914 s were manufactored to fire the 11mm Gras incendiary round making it a good choice for anti balloon missions.

    Hotchkiss M1914 Machine Gun
    • Country of Origin: France
    • Manufacturer: Hotchkiss et Cie
    • Entered Service: 1914
    • Cooling: Air cooled
    • Action Gas Operated
    • Length: 54.724′ (1390 mm)
    • Barrel Length: 31 inches (78.74 cm)
    • Cartridge:
      • 8 × 50 mm R Lebel
      • 7 × 57 mm Mauser
      • >6.5 × 50 mm SR Arisaka
      • 11 mm Gras
    • Caliber: (8 mm)
    • Weight : 53 lb 11 oz (24.4 kg)
    • Cooling Systm: Air Cooled
    • Feed System:
      • 24 round strip
      • 250 round articulated metal belt
    • Rate of fire: 450 rpm

    Lewis Automatic Machine Gun

    LewisMod.15
    Lewis Automatic Machine Gun Model 15

    The Lewis Gun (or Lewis Automatic Machine Gun) is a World War I era light machine gun of American design that was perfected and widely used by the British Empire. It was first used in combat in World War I, and continued in service with a number of armed forces through to the end of the Korean War. It is visually distinctive because of a wide tubular cooling shroud around the barrel and a top mounted drum-pan magazine. It was commonly used as an aircraft machine-gun, almost always with the cooling shroud removed, during both World Wars.
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    Lewis Aerial Gun
    Lewis Aerial Gun

    The Lewis Gun has the distinction of being the first machine-gun fired from an airplane; on June 7, 1912 Captain Charles Chandler of the US Army fired a prototype Lewis Gun from the foot-bar of a Wright Model B Flyer.

    The Lewis Gun was extensively used on British and French aircraft during World War I, either as an observer's or gunner's weapon or as an additional weapon to the more common Vickers. The Lewis' popularity as an aircraft machine-gun was partly due to its low weight, the fact that it was air-cooled and that it used self-contained 97-round drum magazines. Because of this, the Lewis was first fitted on two early production examples of the Bristol Scout D aircraft by Lanoe Hawker in the summer of 1915, mounted on the port side and firing forwards and outwards at a 30° angle to avoid the propeller arc and later on French Nieuport 11 and British S.E.5a aircraft, above the top wing on a Foster mount, which was also outside the propeller's arc. The gun could be swung down on a rail to allow the drum to be changed in flight.
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    Lewis Gun
    • Type: Light machine gun
    • Country of Origin: United States & United Kingdom
    • Designed: 1911
    • Produced: 1913-1942
    • In Service: 1914-1953
    • Designer: Samuel McClean & Colonel Isaac Newton Lewis
    • Manufacturers:
      • Birmingham Small Arms Co.
      • Savage Arms Co.
    • Variants:
      • Anti-Aircraft configuration
      • Light Infantry Pattern
      • Savage M1917
    • Weight:
      • Model 15: 28 pounds (13 kg)
      • Mks I-V, Aircraft Pattern: 16.975 lb (7.7 kg)
    • Length: 50.5 inches (1,280 mm)
    • Barrel Length: 26.5 inches (670 mm)
    • Width: 4.5 inches (110 mm)
    • Cartridge: 0.303 British .30-06 Springfield
    • Action: Gas operated
    • Rate of Fire: 500-600 rpm
    • Muzzle Velocity: 2,440 feet per second (740 m/s)
    • Effective Range: 880 yards (800 m)
    • Maximum Range: 3,500 yards (3,200 m)
    • Cooling Systm: Air Cooled
    • Feed System: 47 or 97-round drum magazine
    • Sights: Blade and Tangent Leaf
    • Example Aircraft:

    Vickers-Maxim Mk.I

    Vickers-Maxim Mk.I

    The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled .303 inch (7.7 mm) machine gun produced by Vickers Limited, originally for the British Army. The machine gun typically required a six- to eight-man team to operate: one to fire, one to feed the ammunition, and the rest to help carry the weapon, its ammunition and spare parts. It served from before the First World War until after the end of the Second World War.

    The weapon had a reputation for great solidity and reliability. Ian V. Hogg, in Weapons & War Machines, describes an action that took place in August, 1916, during which the British Army's 100th Company of the Machine Gun Corps fired their ten Vickers guns continuously for twelve hours. They fired a million rounds between them, using 100 new barrels, without a single breakdown.

    The Vickers gun became a standard weapon on British and French military aircraft, especially after 1916. Although heavier than the Lewis, and using a belt feed which proved problematic in the air, its closed bolt firing cycle made it much easier to synchronize it to allow it to fire through aircraft propellers. The famous Sopwith Camel and the SPAD XIII types used twin synchronised Vickers, as did most British and French fighters between 1918 and the mid 1930s. In the air, the heavy water cooling system was redundant, but because the weapon relied on barrel recoil, the (empty) water-holding barrel jacket or casing needed to be retained. Slots were cut into the barrel jacket to aid air cooling.

    Vickers-Maxim Mk.I