Sopwith Tabloid

Sopwith Tabloid

Introduced toward the end of 1913, the Sopwith Tabloid won the Schneider Trophy at Monaco in 1914. An unarmed single-seater, it was one of the first British biplanes to be used in combat.

On the afternoon of 9 October 1914, in the first successful bombing mission of the war, the Royal Naval Air Service sent two Tabloids to attack the Zeppelin sheds at Dusseldorf and Cologne. Only one of them reached its target but Zeppelin Z-9 was destroyed in its shed at Dusseldorf when the Tabloid pilot released two 20 pound bombs from a height of about 600 feet.

Sopwith Tabloid
  • Type: Reconaissance/Bomber
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • First Introduced: 1913
  • Number built: 40 Tabloid, 160 Schneider
  • Powerplant:1× Gnome Monosoupape air cooled 9-cylinder rotary engine, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wing Span: 25 ft 6 in (7.77 m)
  • Length: 23 ft (7.02 m)
  • Height: 10 ft (3.05 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,200 lb (545 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,580 lb (717 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 80 knots, 92 mph (148 km/h)
  • Range: 315 miles, 275 nm (510 km)
  • Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • Guns: Some RNAS aircraft fitted with 1× forward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun
    • Bombs: 2× 20 lb (9 kg)

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith Tabloid, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Tabloid"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith Tabloid, Schneider and Baby: Historic Military Aircraft No.17, Part I". Flight. 8 November 1957. pp. 733-736.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith Tabloid, Schneider and Baby: Historic Military Aircraft No.17, Part II". Flight. 15 November 1957. pp. 765-766.
  4. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith Tabloid, Schneider and Baby: Historic Military Aircraft No.17, Part IV". Flight. 29 November 1957. pp. 845-848.
  5. Donald, David, ed (1997). "The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft". Prospero Books. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  6. Holmes, Tony (2005). "Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide". London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  7. Lamberton, W.M. (1960). "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Herts: Harleyford Publications Ltd.. pp. 58-59.
  8. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London:Putnam, Fourth edition, 1978. ISBN 0 370 30021 1.

Sopwith L.R.T.Tr.

Sopwith L.R.T.Tr - 1916
Sopwith L.R.T.Tr.

The Sopwith Long Range Tractor Triplane (L.R.T.Tr) was a prototype British long-range three seat triplane escort fighter of the First World War. Of unusual layout, with a small gunner's nacelle mounted on the upper wing to give an all-round field of fire. Only a single example was built, other, smaller, fighters proving more practicable.
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Sopwith L.R.T.Tr.
  • Role: Escort fighter
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith
  • First flight: 1916
  • Status: Prototype
  • Number built: 1
  • Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Eagle water-cooled V12 engine, 250 hp (187 kW)
  • Wingspan: 52 ft 9 in (16.08 m)
  • Length: 35 ft 3 in (10.75 m)
  • Maximum speed: approx 107 mph (172 km/h)
  • Crew: 3 (pilot and two gunners)
  • Armament:
  • 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in nacelle
  • 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in rear cockpit

References

  1. Sopwith L.R.T.Tr.. (2010, September 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:22, November 28, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sopwith_L.R.T.Tr.&oldid=386348868
  2. Sopwith L.R.T.Tr. Virtual Aircraft Museum 1916 http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/sopwith_lrtt.php
  3. Sopwith LRTTr. (1916) (England) http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-english/36180/view/sopwith_l_r_t_tr_(1916)_(england)/
  4. Bruce, J.M. British Aeroplanes 1914-18. London:Putnam, p.25, 1957.
  5. Bruce, J.M. War Planes of the First World War: Volume Two Fighters. London:Macdonald, 1968, pp. 139-142. ISBN 0 356 01473 8.
  6. Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. The Complete Book of Fighters. New York:Smithmark, p.535, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  7. Lewis, Peter. The British Fighter since 1912. London:Putnam, Fourth edition, p.99, 1979. ISBN 0 370 10049 2.
  8. Mason, Francis K. The British Fighter since 1912. Annapolis, Maryland, USA:Naval Institute Press, p.67, pp.78-79, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7
  9. Gunston, Bill "Back to the Drawing Board: Aircraft That Flew But Never Took Off". First Edition edition (Jun 1996) Airlife Publishing Ltd; ISBN-10: 1853107581

Sopwith one and a Half Strutter

Sopwith one and a Half Strutter

The Sopwith 1½ Strutter was a British one or two-seat biplane multi-role aircraft of the First World War. It is significant as the first British-designed two seater tractor fighter, and the first British aircraft to enter service with a synchronised machine gun. It also saw widespread but rather undistinguished service with the French Aéronautique Militaire.

The first British fighter equipped with a fixed, forward firing, synchronized machine gun, the Sopwith 1½ Strutter was built in both one and two-seater models. In the latter version, the gas tank was dangerously positioned between the pilot and observer.

This design flaw prompted some airmen to joke that the designer of the aircraft must surely have been German. Not long after its introduction, the 1½ Strutter was replaced by the Sopwith Pup.

Sopwith 1.5 Strutter
  • Type: Fighter; later used for reconaissance/bombing
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • First Introduced: 1916
  • Number Built: About 6000
  • Powerplant: Clerget 9B rotary engine, 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Wing Span: 33 ft 6 in (10.21 m)
  • Length: 25 ft 3 in (7.70 m)
  • Height: Height: 10 ft 3 in (3.12 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,305 lb (593 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,149 lb (975 kg)
  • Max Speed: 161 kmh
  • Service Ceiling: 100 mph (87 knots, 161 km/h) at 6,500 ft (1,980 m)
  • Endurance: 3.75 hours
  • Crew: 1or 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns:
    • 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers machine gun with Ross interrupter gear
    • 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in observer's cockpit
    • Bombs: Up to 130 lb (60 kg) bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith 1½ Strutter "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_1%C2%BD_Strutter"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith 1½ Strutter: Historic Military Aircraft No. 14 Part I." Flight, 28 September 1956, pp. 542-546.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith 1½ Strutter: Historic Military Aircraft No. 14 Part II." Flight, 5 October 1956, pp. 586-591.
  4. "
  5. Bruce J.M. "British Aeroplanes 1914-18". London:Putnam, 1957.
  6. Bruce, J.M. "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Military Wing). London: Putnam, 1982. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  7. Gerdessen, F. "Estonian Air Power 1918-1945". Air Enthusiast No 18, April -July 1982, pp. 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  8. Jarrett, Philip. "Database:The Sopwith 1½ Strutter". Aeroplane, December 2009, Vol 37 No 12, Issue No 440. London:IPC. ISSN 0143-7240. pp.55-70.
  9. Kopan'ski, Tomasz Jan. "Samoloty brytyjskie w lotnictwie polskim 1918-1930" (British aircraft in the Polish air force 1918-1930) (in Polish). Warsaw: Bellona, 2001. ISBN 83-11-09315-6.
  10. Lake, Jon. "The Great Book of Bombers: The World's Most Important Bombers from World War I to the Present Day". St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Company, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1347-4.
  11. Swanborough, F.G. and Peter Bowers. "United States Military Aircraft since 1909". London: Putnam, 1963.
  12. Swanborough Gordon and Peter Bowers. "United States Navy Aircraft since 1911". London: Putnam, Second edition 1976. ISBN 0-370-10054-9.
  13. Taylor, John W.R. "Sopwith 1½ Strutter". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  14. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London: Putnam, Fourth edition 1978. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  15. Visatkas, C. "The Annals of Lithuanian Aviation". Air Enthusiast, Number Twenty-nine, November 1985-February 1986, pp. 61-66. Bromley, UK:Fine Scroll. ISSN 0143-5450.

Sopwith Pup

Sopwith Pup
Sopwith Pup

The Sopwith Pup quickly became a favorite with pilots of the Royal Naval Air Service. It was superior to the Fokker D.III and more than a match for any of the new Halberstadt and Albatros scouts. Armed with a single synchronous machine gun, it was lighter and less dangerous than it's successor, the Sopwith Camel.

Although underpowered, pilots liked the plane because it was maneuverable and fast. It could climb and hold its altitude better than any other fighter. In August 1917, the Sopwith Pup was the first aircraft to land aboard a moving ship, the Royal Navy's H.M.S. Furious.

In 1915, Sopwith produced the SLTBP, a personal aircraft for the company's test pilot, Harry Hawker. The SLTBP was a single-seat, tractor biplane powered by a 50 hp Gnome rotary engine. Sopwith next developed a larger fighter that was heavily influenced by the SLTBP.
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Sopwith Pup
  • Type: Biplane fighter
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • Designed By: Herbert Smith
  • First Flight: February 1916
  • Introduced: October 1916
  • Primary Users:
    • Royal Flying Corps
    • Royal Air Force
    • Royal Naval Air Service
  • Produced: 1916-1918
  • Number built: 1,770
  • Variants:
    • Alcock Scout
    • Beardmore W.B.III
  • Powerplant: 1× Le Rhône air-cooled rotary engine, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wingspan: 26 ft 6 in (8.08 m)
  • Wing Area: 254 ft² (23.6 m²)
  • Length: 19 ft 3¾ in (5.89 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 5 in (2.87 m)
  • Empty Weight: 787 lb (358 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,225 lb (557 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 97 knots (111½ mph, 180 km/h) at sea level
  • Service Ceiling: 17,500 feet (5,600 m)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Climb to: 10,000 ft (3,050 m) 14 min
  • Climb to: 16,100 ft (4,910 m) 35 min
  • Crew: one
  • Armament: 1× 0.303 (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers gun

References

  1. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith Pup: Historic Military Aircraft No 6". Flight, 1 January 1954, pp. 8-12.
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith Pup". Aircraft in Profile, Volume 1/Part 2. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1965 (4th revised edition 1976). ISBN 0-85383-411-3.
  3. Bruce, J.M., Gordon Page and Ray Sturtivant. "The Sopwith Pup". Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 2002. ISBN 0-85130-310-2.
  4. Franks, Norman and Harry Dempsey. "Sopwith Pup Aces of World War I" (Aircraft of the Aces). London: Osprey Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-84176-886-3.
  5. Robertson, Bruce. "Sopwith – The Man and His Aircraft". London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-90043-515-1.
  6. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London: Putnam, Fourth edition 1978. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  7. Winchester, Jim, ed. "Sopwith Pup Naval Fighter". Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.

Sopwith Triplane

Sopwith Triplane
Sopwith Triplane

The Sopwith Triplane was used in combat by the Royal Naval Air Service. The stack of three wings reduced wingspan and increased wing area making it handle and climb better than biplanes. Visibility from the cockpit was outstanding but it was slower and less heavily armed than it's German opponents.
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Sopwith Triplane
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • Entered Service:28 May 1916
  • Number Built:147
  • Powerplant: Le Rhône 9B, air-cooled 9 cylinder rotary 130 hp. (97 kW)
  • Wingspan: 26 ft 6 in (8 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 10 in (5.73 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 6 in (3.2 m)
  • Empty Weight: 993 lb (450 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,415 lb (642 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 117 mph (187 km/h) at 5,000 ft (1,830 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 20,500 ft (6,250 m)
  • Range: 280 mi (450 km)
  • Endurance: 2 hrs 45 min
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1× 0.303 (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith Triplane, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Triplane"
  2. Bowers, Peter M. and Ernest R. McDowell. "Triplanes: A Pictorial History of the World's Triplanes and Multiplanes". St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1993. ISBN 0-87938-614-2.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "Sopwith Triplane" (Windsock Datafile 22). Berkhamsted, Herts, UK: Albatros Productions, 1990. ISBN 0-94841-426-X.
  4. Connors, John F. "Sopwith's Flying Staircase." Wings, Volume 5, No. 3, June 1975.
  5. Cooksley, Peter. "Sopwith Fighters in Action" (Aircraft No. 110). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1991. ISBN 0-89747-256-X.
  6. Davis, Mick. "Sopwith Aircraft. Ramsbury", Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 1999. ISBN 1-86126-217-5.
  7. Franks, Norman. "Sopwith Triplane Aces of World War I" (Aircraft of the Aces No. 62). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-84176-728-X.
  8. Hiscock, Melvyn. "Classic Aircraft of World War I" (Osprey Classic Aircraft). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1994. ISBN 1-85532-407-5.
  9. Kennett, Lee. "The First Air War: 1914-1918". New York: The Free Press, 1991. ISBN 0-02917-301-9.
  10. Lamberton, W.M., and E.F. Cheesman. "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth: Harleyford, 1960. ISBN 0-90043-501-1.
  11. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter Since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  12. Robertson, Bruce. "Sopwith – The Man and His Aircraft". London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-90043-515-1.
  13. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft Since 1912". London: Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.

Sopwith Baby

Sopwith Baby
Sopwith Baby, N1019

The Baby was a development of the two-seat Sopwith Schneider. Although the Schneider had won the Schneider trophy in 1914, the RNAS did not place a formal order until January 1915. The production version of the Baby differed little from the Schneider Trophy winner.

The Baby was also built by Blackburn Aircraft, Fairey, and Parnall in the United Kingdom. In Italy licensed manufacture was undertaken by SA Aeronautica Gio Ansaldo of Turin.

The Baby was used as a shipborne scout and bomber aircraft operating from larger ships such as seaplane carriers and cruisers, and smaller vessels such as naval trawlers and minelayers. It was even considered for operation from submarines. The main role of the Baby was to intercept German Zeppelin raids as far from Britain as possible.
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Sopwith Baby
  • Type: Single-seat scout and bomber biplane seaplane
  • Manufacturer:
    • Sopwith Aviation Company
    • Blackburn Aircraft
    • Fairey
    • Parnall
    • SA Aeronautica Gio Ansaldo
  • Number Built: about 700
  • Entered Service: September 1915
  • Powerplant: 1× Clerget rotary, 110 hp. (82 kW)
  • Length: 23 ft 0 in (7.01 m)
  • Wingspan: 25 ft 8 in (7.82 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 0 in (3.05 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,226 lb (557 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,715 lb (779 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 87 knots (100 mph, 162 km/h) at sea level
  • Service ceiling: 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Endurance: 2.25 hrs
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun
    • 2 × 65 lb (28 kg) bombs

References

  1. Sopwith Baby. (2010, October 12). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:22, November 16, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sopwith_Baby&oldid=390358068
  2. Holmes, Tony (2005). Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide. London: Harper Collins. p. 44. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  3. Lamberton, W.M. (1960). Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War. Herts: Harleyford Publications Ltd..

Sopwith Camel

Sopwith Camel - 1917
Sopwith Camel

An agile, highly maneuverable biplane, the Sopwith Camel accounted for more aerial victories than any other Allied aircraft during World War I. Credited with destroying 1,294 enemy aircraft, it was called the Camel due to the humped fairing over its twin machine guns. Much like a real camel, this aircraft could turn and bite you. Noted for its tendency to kill inexperienced flyers, many pilots feared its vicious spin characteristics.

Until sufficient speed was developed during takeoff, Camel pilots maintained full right rudder to counteract the torque the rotary engine. Failure to do so often resulted in a ground loop with the Camel crashing on its starboard wingtip. During World War I, 413 pilots died in combat and 385 pilots died from non-combat related causes while flying the Sopwith Camel.

The type entered squadron service in June 1917 with No. 4 Squadron of the Royal Naval Air Service, near Dunkirk. The following month, it became operational with No. 70 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps. By February 1918, 13 squadrons were fully equipped with the Camel.
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Sopwith Camel
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • First Entered Service: May 1917
  • Number Built: 5,734
  • Powerplant:
    • Bentley BR.1, 150 hp (110 kW)
    • Le Rhône, Reciprocating 9 cylinder air cooled rotary, 110 hp. (82 kW)
    • Clerget 9B, 9 cylinder, air cooled rotary, 130 hp (97 kW)
    • Clerget 9Bf, 9 cylinder, air cooled rotary, 140 hp
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 11 in (8.53 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 9 in (5.71 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m)
  • Empty Weight: 930 lb (420 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,455 lb (660 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 115 mph (185 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 21,000 ft (6,400 m)
  • Range: 300 mi (485 km)
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • (F.1) 2 Vickers 0.303 machine guns
    • (2F.1) 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun & 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun
    • or 2 × Lewis 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith Camel, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Camel"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "Sopwith Camel: Historic Military Aircraft No 10: Part I." Flight, 22 April 1955, pp. 527-532.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "Sopwith Camel: Historic Military Aircraft No 10: Part II." Flight, 29 April 1955. pp. 560-563.
  4. Clark, Alan. Aces High: The War In The Air Over The Western Front 1914 - 1918. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973. ISBN 0-29799-464-6.
  5. Ellis, Ken. "Wrecks & Relics", 21st edition. Manchester: Crecy Publishing, 2008. ISBN 9 780859 791342
  6. Jackson, A.J. "British Civil Aircraft 1919-1972: Volume III". London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-818-6.
  7. Robertson, Bruce. "Sopwith: The Man and His Aircraft". London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-90043-515-1.
  8. Sturtivant, Ray and Gordon Page. "The Camel File". Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1993. ISBN 0-85130-212-2.
  9. "United States Air Force Museum Guidebook". Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, , 1975.
  10. Winchester, Jim, ed. "Sopwith Camel." Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.

Sopwith Dolphin

Sopwith Dolphin
Sopwith Dolphin

The Dolphin was an unorthidox design with a reverse stagger to it's upper wing that was not received well in spite of it's performance in the field. Many pilots did not trust the design. With 20 victories, American Frederick Gillet scored more victories with the Sopwith Dolphin than any other ace

The Sopwith 5F.1 Dolphin was a British fighter aircraft manufactured by the Sopwith Aviation Company. It was used by the Royal Flying Corps and its successor, the Royal Air Force, during the First World War. The Dolphin entered service on the Western Front in early 1918 and proved to be a formidable fighter. The aircraft was not retained in the postwar inventory, however, and was retired shortly after the war.
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Sopwith Dolphin
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • First Introduced: February 1918
  • Number Built: 1532
  • Powerplant: Hispano-Suiza 8E, water cooled, V-8, 200 hp
  • Wing Span: 32 ft 6 in m (9.91)
  • Length: 22 ft 3 in (6.78 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,410 lb (641 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,959 lb (890 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 131 mph (211 km/h ) at sea level
  • Service Ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
  • Range: 315 km (195 mi )
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
    • up to 2× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun
    • Bombs: Up to four 25 lb bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith Dolphin, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Dolphin"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith Dolphin." Aircraft in Profile, Volume 8. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1970. ISBN 0-85383-016-9.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Sopwith 5F.1 Dolphin." Air Pictorial. Vol. 23, No. 5, May 1961.
  4. Bruce, J,M. "War Planes of the First World War: Volume Three: Fighters". London: Macdonald, 1969, ISBN 0-35601-490-8.
  5. Connors, John F. "The 11th Hour Sopwiths." Wings, Volume 6, No. 1, February 1976.
  6. Cooksley, Peter. "Sopwith Fighters in Action" (Aircraft No. 110). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1991. ISBN 0-89747-256-X.
  7. Davis, Mick. Sopwith Aircraft". Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 1999. ISBN 1-86126-217-5.
  8. Franks, Norman. "Dolphin and Snipe Aces of World War I" (Aircraft of the Aces No. 48). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-317-9.
  9. Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "The Complete Book of Fighters". London: Salamander Books, 1994. ISBN 0-83173-939-8.
  10. Kopañski, Tomasz Jan. "Samoloty brytyjskie w lotnictwie polskim 1918-1930" (British Aircraft in the Polish Air Force 1918-1930) (in Polish). Warsaw: Bellona, 2001. ISBN 8-31109-315-6.
  11. Lamberton, W.M., and E.F. Cheesman. "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth, UK: Harleyford, 1960. ISBN 0-90043-501-1.
  12. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter Since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  13. Milberry, Larry. "Aviation in Canada: The Pioneer Decades". Toronto: CANAV Books, 2008. ISBN 0-921022-19-0.
  14. Milberry, Larry. "Sixty Years: The RCAF and Air Command 1924-1984". Toronto: CANAV Books, 1984. ISBN 0-9690703-4-9.
  15. Payne, Stephen, ed. "Canadian Wings: A Remarkable Century of Flight". Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2006. ISBN 1-55365-167-7.
  16. Robertson, Bruce. "Sopwith – The Man and His Aircraft". London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-90043-515-1.

Sopwith Cuckoo

Sopwith Cuckoo - 1918
Sopwith T.1 Cuckoo

The Sopwith T.1 Cuckoo was a British biplane torpedo bomber used by the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS), and its successor organization, the Royal Air Force (RAF). The T.1 was the first landplane specifically designed for carrier operations, but it was completed too late for service in the First World War. After the Armistice, the T.1 was named the Cuckoo.

In October 1916, Commodore Murray Sueter, the Air Department's Superintendent of Aircraft Construction, solicited Sopwith for a single-seat aircraft capable of carrying a 1,000 lb torpedo and sufficient fuel to provide an endurance of four hours. The resulting aircraft, designated T.1 by Sopwith, was a large, three-bay biplane. Because the T.1 was designed to operate from carrier decks, its wings were hinged to fold backwards. The T.1 could take off from a carrier deck in four seconds, but it was not capable of making a carrier landing and no arresting gear was fitted. A split-axle undercarriage allowed the aircraft to carry a 1,000 lb Mk. IX torpedo beneath the fuselage.

The prototype T.1 first flew in June 1917, powered by a 200 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ba engine. Official trials commenced in July 1917 and the Admiralty issued production orders for 100 aircraft in August. Contractors Fairfield Engineering and Pegler & Company had no experience as aircraft manufacturers, however, resulting in substantial production delays. Moreover, the S.E.5a had priority for the limited supplies of the Hispano-Suiza 8. Redesign of the T.1 airframe to accommodate the heavier Sunbeam Arab incurred further delays.
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T.1 Cuckoo Mk. I
  • Role: Torpedo bomber
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • Introduced: 1918
  • Retired: 1923
  • Primary user: Royal Air Force
  • Number built: 232
  • Variants:
    • Cuckoo Mk. I: Main production variant. Powered by a 200 hp (149 kW) Sunbeam Arab engine.
    • Cuckoo Mk. II: Mk. I converted to use a 200 hp (149 kW) Wolseley Viper engine.
    • Cuckoo Mk. III: Prototype powered by a 275 hp (205 kW) Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine.
    • Sopwith B.1: Single-seat bomber powered by a 200 hp (149 kW) Hispano-Suiza 8 engine. Two prototypes built.
  • Powerplant: 1× Sunbeam Arab V8 engine, 200 hp (149 kW)
  • Wingspan: 46 ft 9 in (14.25 m)
  • Wing area: 566 ft² (52.6 m²)
  • Length: 28 ft 6 in (8.68 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m)
  • Empty weight: 2,199 lb (1,000 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 3,883 lb (1,765kg)
  • Maximum speed: 105.5 mph (92 kts, 171 km/h)
  • Range: 291 nm (335 mi, 539 km)
  • Service ceiling: 12,100 ft (3,690 m)
  • Crew: one, pilot
  • Armament: 1× 18 inch Mk. IX torpedo

References

  1. Davis, Mick. "Sopwith Aircraft". Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 1999. ISBN 1-86126-217-5.
  2. Layman, R.D. "Naval Aviation In The First World War: Its Impact And Influence". London: Caxton, 2002. ISBN 1-84067-314-1.
  3. Robertson, Bruce. "Sopwith - The Man and His Aircraft". London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-90043-515-1.
  4. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft Since 1912". London: Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.

Sopwith Salamander

Sopwith Salamander - 1918
Sopwith Salamander

The Sopwith TF.2 Salamander was a British World War I ground attack aircraft which first flew in April 1918. The war ended before the type could enter squadron service, although two were in France in October 1918.

By 1917, the use of close support aircraft had become an essential part of an infantry attack. On the German side, specialist aircraft were designed specifically for the task, such as the Halberstadt CL.II and the armored Junkers J.I – the British however relied for this work on ordinary fighters such as the DH 5, and the Camel, and general purpose two seaters such as the F.K.8. Ground fire took a heavy toll of aircrew involved, and an equivalent to the armored German machines was sought. The first British aircraft to be built specifically for "ground strafing", as close support was known, was an armored version of the Camel, known by the company as the "TF.1" (for "trench fighter"). This did not go into production, but information gained in testing it was used for the Salamander design.
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Sopwith TF.2 Salamander
  • Type: Ground attack
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith
  • First Flight: 27 April 1918
  • Primary User: Royal Air Force
  • Produced: 1918-1919
  • Number Built : 419
  • Developed From: Sopwith Snipe
  • Powerplant: 1× Bentley BR2 rotary, air cooled 230 hp (172 kw)
  • Wingspan: 31 ft 3 in (9.53 m)
  • Wing Area: 272 ft² (25.27 m²)
  • Airfoil: Chord: 5 ft (1.5 m)
  • Length: 19 ft 6 in (5.94 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 4 in (2.84 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,844 lb (836 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,512 lb (1.140 kg)
  • Fuel: 29 gallons (110 litres)
  • Maximum Speed: 117 mph at 10,000 ft, 125 mph at low altitude (188 km/h at 3,048 m, 201 km/h at low altitude)
  • Service ceiling: 13,000 (4,000 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 17 minutes to 10,000 ft (3,048 m)
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
    • Bombs: 4 light bombs

References

  1. Bruce, Jack M., "The First British armoured Brigade", AIR International, Bromley, Kent, UK, April 1979, Volume 16, Number 4, page 185.
  2. "Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I". New York, New York: Military Press. 1990. pp. 87. ISBN 0-517-03376-3.
  3. Bruce, J.M. (1969). "War Planes of the First World War" (Vol.2). London: Macdonald. ISBN 0-356-01490-8.

Sopwith Snipe

Sopwith Snipe - 1918
Sopwith Snipe

A descendant of the Sopwith Camel, the Sopwith Snipe was equipped with a more powerful engine and provided better visibility from the cockpit. Though not much faster than the Camel, the Snipe had a better rate of climb and pilots found it much easier to fly.

On 27 October 1918, Canadian ace William Barker made the Sopwith Snipe famous in a single-handed battle with more than 60 enemy aircraft that earned him the Victoria Cross. Flying the Sopwith Snipe, Captain Elwyn King scored 7 victories making him the highest scoring ace to fly this aircraft.

Sopwith Snipe
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • Type: Fighter
  • First Introduced: 1918
  • Number Built: 497
  • Powerplant: Bentley B.R.2, air cooled rotary, 230 hp
  • Wing Span: 31 ft 1 in (9.47 m)
  • Length: 19 ft 2 in (5.84 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,305 lb (590 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,105 lb (955 kg)
  • Max Speed: 121 mph (195 km/h) - 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
  • Endurance: 3 hrs
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • Guns:Two 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns
    • Bombs: Four 25 lb (11 kg) bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith Snipe, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Snipe"
  2. Franks, Norman. "Dolphin and Snipe Aces of World War I (Aircraft of the Aces)". London: Osprey Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-317-9.

Sopwith Buffalo

Sopwith Buffalo
Sopwith Buffalo

The Sopwith Buffalo was a British armored fighter/reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War. A single-engined biplane, two examples of the Buffalo were built by Sopwith to carry out reconnaissance missions low over the trenches while protected against machine-gun fire from the ground, but no production followed, with the end of the war removing the need for such an aircraft.

In July 1918, the British Air Ministry requested Sopwith, who was already building the Sopwith Salamander armored single-seat ground attack fighter, to build an armored two-seat aircraft to carry out the dangerous contact patrol mission. This mission involved flying at low altitude over the battlefield to locate and keep in contact with attacking forces, therefore keeping commanders in touch with the progress of the battle. This exposed aircraft carrying out such missions to heavy small arms fire from enemy trenches, resulting in heavy casualties.
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Sopwith Buffalo
  • Role: Armored fighter/reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • First flight: September 19, 1918
  • Status: Prototype
  • Number built: 2
  • Developed from: Sopwith Bulldog
  • Powerplant: 1× Bentley BR.2 rotary engine, 230 hp (172 kW)
  • Wingspan: 36 ft 6 in (10.52 m)
  • Wing area: 326 sq ft (30.3 m²)
  • Length: 23 ft 3½in (7.10 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m)
  • Empty weight: 2,178 lb (990 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 3,071 lb (1,396 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 114 mph (99 knots, 184 km/h) at 1,000 ft (300 m)
  • Service ceiling: 9,000 ft (2,700 m)
  • Climb to 3,000 ft (900 m): 4 min 55 sec
  • Range: 275 mi (239 nmi, 443 km/h)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1× forward firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun
    • Gun - Observer: 1× flexibly mounted 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in rear cockpit

References

  1. Bruce, J.M. "British Aeroplanes 1914-18". London:Putnam, 1957.
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The First British armoured Brigade",Part 3. Air International, April 1979, Vol 16 No. 4. Bromley, UK:Fine Scroll Publishing. pp. 182-190, 199-200.
  3. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland, USA:Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  4. "Milestones:The Sopwith Machines". Flight, 6 February 1919. pp. 163-174.
  5. Robertson, Bruce. "Sopwith–The Man and his Aircraft". Letchworth, UK:Air Review, 1970. ISBN 0 900 435 15 1

Sopwith Bulldog

The Sopwith 2FR.2 Bulldog was a prototype British two-seat fighter of the First World War. A single-engined biplane, the Bulldog was a fighter/reconnaissance aircraft intended to replace the Bristol F.2 Fighter, but was unsuccessful, with no replacement for the Bristol Fighter being purchased.

In August 1917, the Sopwith Aviation Company started design of a two-seat fighter reconnaissance aircraft intended to replace the Bristol F.2 Fighter, and received permission to build prototypes of the Sopwith FR.2. It was intended to power the FR.2 with a 200 hp (149 kW) Hispano-Suiza 8 water-cooled V-8 engine, but the Hispano was in great demand, and it was decided to switch to the new Clerget 11, an eleven-cylinder rotary engine, a change which led to the prospective design being redesignated 2FR.2.

The Bulldog was a compact single-bay biplane resembling the first prototype Sopwith Snipe single-seat fighter. The pilot sat under the upper wing, with his head and shoulders protruding through a large gap in the centre section, while the observer's cockpit was aft of the trailing edge of the upper wing. Armament was two synchronised Vickers machine guns in a hump ahead of the pilot, while the observer/gunner was provided with two Lewis guns, one on a telescopic mounting forward of the observer's cockpit, and the second on a pillar mounting to give rearward defence.
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Sopwith Bulldog Mk.I, two-bay wings
  • Role: Fighter/reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith
  • First flight: 1918
  • Status: Prototype
  • Number built: 2
  • Powerplant: 1× Clerget 11Eb 11-cylinder rotary engine, 200 hp (149 kW)
  • Wingspan: 33 ft 9 in (10.29 m)
  • Wing area: 335 ft² (31.4 m²)
  • Length: 23 ft 0 in (7.01 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 9 in (2.67 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,441 lb (655 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2,495 lb (1,134 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 109 mph (95 km/h, 175 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4,570 m)
  • Climb to 10,000 ft (3,050 m): 15 min 35 sec
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns- Pilot: 2× forward firing .303 in Vickers machine guns
    • Guns- Observer: 2× Lewis guns in rear cockpit

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith Bulldog, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Bulldog"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "War Planes of the First World War: Volume Three Fighters. London:Macdonald, 1969. ISBN 0356 01490 8.
  3. Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. "The Complete Book of Fighters". New York:Smithmark, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  4. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter since 1912". Annapolis, USA:Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.

Sopwith Swallow

Sopwith Swallow
Sopwith Swallow

The Sopwith Swallow single-seat fighter monoplane was basicly an F.1 Camel fuselage built by Boulton & Paul, which Harry Hawker mated with a parasol wing. The Swallow was powered by a 110hp (82 kW) Le Rhone 9J air-cooled nine-cylinder rotary engine and carried the standard armament of twin 0.303 in (7.7 mm) fixed forward-firing, synchronised Vickers machine guns.

Flown for the first time in September 1918, the Swallow (serial number B9276) was delivered to Martlesham Heath for official trials by the RFC on October 29, 1918, remaining there until May 1919. The prototype had several fuel system problems which delayed the trials until after the war ended. The lackluter performance of the Swallow during the trails at Martlesham convinced the Royal Flying Corps that the design did not warrant further development, and the prototype was scrapped.

Sopwith Swallow
  • Type: Monoplane Fighter
  • Built By: Boulton & Paul
  • Converted By: Harry Hawker
  • First Flight: September 1918
  • Flight Trails: October 29, 1918-May 1919
  • Based On: F.1 Sopwith Camel
  • Number Built: 1
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhone 9J nine-cylinder rotary engine, 110hp (82 kW)
  • Wingspan: 29 ft 10 in (8.79 m)
  • Wing Area: 159.95 ft² (14.86 m²)
  • Length: 19 ft 9 in (5.72 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 2 in (3.10 m)
  • Empty Weight: 403 kg 888 lb
  • Take-off Weight: 1420 lb (644 kg)
  • Max. Speed: 182 km/h 113 mph
  • Crew: One
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) fixed forward-firing, synchronised Vickers machine guns

References

  1. Virtual Aircraft Museum Sopwith Swallow 1918 : "http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/sopwith_swallow.php"
  2. The-Blueprints.com, Sopwith Swallow 1918 "http://www.the-blueprints.com/.../ww1.../sopwith_swallow_1918"
  3. "Windsock Datafile Specials" Volume 14 No. 4 - July/Aug 1998 Albatros Productions "http://www.windsockdatafilespecials.co.uk/volume-14-no-4---julyaug-1998-62-p.asp"