Morane-Saulnier H

Morane-Saulnier H - 1913
Morane-Saulnier H

The Morane-Saulnier H was a sport aircraft produced in France in the years before the First World War, a single-seat derivative of the successful Morane-Saulnier G with a slightly reduced wingspan Like the Type G, it was a successful sporting type in its day.

During the second international aero meet, held at Wiener Neustadt in June 1913, Roland Garros won the precision landing prize in a Type H.

The French Army ordered a batch of 26 aircraft, and the British Royal Flying Corps also acquired a small number, these latter machines purchased from Grahame-White, who was manufacturing the type in the UK under licence. The French machines saw limited service in the opening stages of World War I, with pilots engaging in aerial combat using revolvers and carbines.

The type was also produced under licence in Germany by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke, who built it as the E.I, E.II, E.IV, E.V, and E.VI, with increasingly powerful engines. These were armed with a single, synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun.

Morane-Saulnier H
  • Type: Sport aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Morane-Saulnier
  • First flight: 1913
  • Operators:
  • Variants
    • Pfalz-built versions
    • E.I - with Oberursel U.0 rotary engine (60 built)
    • E.II - with Oberursel U.I rotary engine
    • E.IV - with Oberursel U.III rotary engine (ca. 24 built)
    • E.V - with Mercedes D.I water-cooled, inline engine
    • E.VI - with Oberursel U.I engine, lengthened fuselage, enlarged tail fin and additional bracing (20 built)
  • France: Aéronautique Militaire
  • Austria-Hungary: Austro-Hungarian Navy - (Pfalz-built versions)
  • Germany: Luftstreitkräfte - (Pfalz-built versions)
  • Portugal: One aircraft only.
  • United Kingdom: Royal Flying Corps
  • Length: 5.84 m (19 ft 2 in)
  • Wingspan: 9.12 m (29 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 2.26 m (7 ft 5 in)
  • Empty weight: 188 kg (415 lb)
  • Gross weight: 444 kg (979 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9C, 60 kW (80 hp)
  • Maximum speed: 120 km/h (75 mph)
  • Range: 177 km (111 miles)
  • Crew: One pilot

References

  1. "Morane-Saulnier H". (2010, September 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:55, September 24, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morane-Saulnier_H&oldid=385618616
  2. "Schneider et hydravions anciens/Dossiers historiques hydravions et moteurs". http://www.hydroretro.net/etudegh/moranesaulnierhydro.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  3. "Morane-Saulnier Type H". flugzeuginfo.net. http://www.flugzeuginfo.net/acdata_php/acdata_morane_h_en.php. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  4. Grosz, P.M. (1996). "Pfalz E.I-E.VI". Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire: Albatros Publications.
  5. Hartmann, Gérard (2001). "L'incroyable Morane-Saulnier hydro". La Coupe
  6. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft". London: Aerospace Publishing.
  7. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.

Morane-Saulnier Type L

Morane-Saulnier L

A "parasol" monoplane, the Morane Type L was a fragile one or two-seat reconnaissance aircraft. It was the first aircraft armed with a fixed machine gun that fired through the propellor arc. Bullets which struck the propellor were deflected by steel plates. Armed with a Hotchkiss machine gun firing 8 mm solid copper bullets, Roland Garros tested the design in April 1915. He scored three victories in three weeks before the plane was captured by the Germans.

Morane-Saulnier L
  • Type: Fighter Reconnaissance
  • Manufacturer: Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier
  • First Introduced: 1913
  • Number Built: 600
  • Powerplant: Gnome, air-cooled 7 cylinder rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wing Span: 36 ft 9 in 11.2 m
  • Length: 22 ft 6.75 in 6.88 m
  • Height: 12 ft 10.5 in 3.93 m
  • Wing Area: 290 ft² (27.00 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 385 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 1,441 lb 655 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 71.5 mph 115 kmh
  • Service Ceiling: 13,123 ft 4000 m
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours
  • Crew: 1 or 2
  • Armament: 1 machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Morane-Saulnier L, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morane-Saulnier_L"
  2. Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. "The Complete Book of Fighters". New York: Smithmark, 1994, p.413. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft". London: Aerospace Publishing, p.2698.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions, p. 684.
  5. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London: Putnam, Fourth edition, 1978, p.258. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  6. Nicolle, David "The Ottoman Army 1914-1918" (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1994), p.9

Morane Saulnier N

Morane Saulnier N
Morane Saulnier N - 1915

Due to the shape of its nose, the Morane-Saulnier Type N was aptly nicknamed the “Bullet”. Built in small numbers, it was the first French aircraft specifically developed as a fighter. Armed with a fixed, forward firing machine gun, its propeller was protected by the metal deflector plates pioneered by Roland Garros on the Morane-Saulnier Type L. Although it was faster and more maneuverable than previous aircraft, the Bullet was extremely difficult to fly and unpopular with pilots.

Morane Saulnier N
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier
  • First Introduced: 1914
  • Number Built: 49
  • Powerplant: Le Rhône 9C, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 8.5 in 8.15 m
  • Length: 19 ft 1.5 in 5.83 m
  • Height: 7 ft 4.5 in 2.25 m
  • Loaded Weight: 976 lb 444 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 90 mph 144 km/h
  • Service Ceiling: 13,123 ft 4000 m
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Morane-Saulnier N, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morane-Saulnier_N"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "War Planes of the First World War: Fighters: Volume Five". London:Macdonald, 1972, p.86. ISBN 356 0779 7.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Bullets and the Guns". Air Enthusiast. Issue Nine, February-May 1979. Bromley, Kent: Pilot Press, 1979. Pages 61-75.

Morane-Saulnier BB

Morane-Saulnier BB -1915
Morane-Saulnier BB

The Morane-Saulnier BB was a military observation aircraft produced in France during World War I for use by Britain's Royal Flying Corps. It was a conventional single-bay biplane design with seating for the pilot and observer in tandem, open cockpits. The original order called for 150 aircraft powered by 110-hp Le Rhône engines, but shortages meant that most of the 94 aircraft eventually built were delivered with the 80 hp Le Rhônes instead. A water-cooled Hispano-Suiza engine was trialled as an alternative in the Type BH, but this remained experimental only.

The type equipped a number of RFC and RNAS squadrons both in its original observation role and, equipped with a forward-firing Lewis gun mounted on the top wing, as a fighter.

Morane-Saulnier Type BB, Type BH
  • Role: Observation aircraft
  • National Origin: France
  • Manufacturer: Morane-Saulnier
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Primary User: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number Built: 94
  • Operators:
    • United Kingdom: Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service
    • Russian Empire: Imperial Russian Air Service
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône, 110 hp (82 kW)
  • Wingspan: 28 ft 5 in (8.65 m)
  • Wing Area: 247 ft² (23.0 m²)
  • Length: 23 ft 0 in (7.00 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 4 in (2.54 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,650 lb (750 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 92 mph (147 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 13,000 ft (4,000 m)
  • Crew: Two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Pilot: 1 × forward-firing Lewis gun 0.303 in (7.7 mm) mounted on the top wing
    • Observer: 1 × trainable, rearward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun for observer

References

  1. Morane-Saulnier BB. (2010, March 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11:53, July 31, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morane-Saulnier_BB&oldid=349698249
  2. Parmentier, Bruno. "Morane-Saulnier BB". Aviafrance - Un siècle d'aviation française. http://www.aviafrance.com/1387.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft"". London: Aerospace Publishing.
  4. Bruce, J.M. (1982). "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps (Military Wing). London: Putnam. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  5. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.

Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35

Morane Saulnier MS.35 - 1915
Morane Saulnier MS.35 - 1915

First flown in 1915, the AR was a two-seat parasol-wing monoplane constructed largely of wood with fabric covering. About 400 were built after World War I (when it was known as the MS.35), mainly as intermediate trainers in three principal versions: MS.35R with a 59.6kW Le Rhone 9c rotary engine; MS.35A with an Anzani engine; and MS.35C with a Clerget 9B engine. The MS.35EP2 served with French Aeronautique Militaire 'Ecoles de Pilotage' up to 1929. Other military users were Poland (60), Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Guatemala, Romania, Soviet Union (30) and Turkey. A number also went to civil users.

Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35
  • Role: Two-seat Parasol Monoplane Trainer
  • Manufacturer: Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Retired: 1929
  • Number Built: over 500
  • Primary Operater: French Aeronautique Militaire "Ecoles de Pilotage"
  • Powerplants:
    • MS.35A: 1 × Anzani 10, air-cooled 10 cylinder radial engine 90 - 100 hp (75 kW)
    • MS.35C: 1 × Clerget 9B, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 130 hp (97 kW)
    • MS.35R: 1 × Le Rhône 9C, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 9 in (10.6 m)
  • Wing Area:193.75 ft³ (18.0 m²)
  • Length: 22 ft 4 in (6.8 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 10 in (3.6 m)
  • Take-off Weight:1543 lb (700 kg)
  • Empty Weight: 992 lb (450 kg)
  • Max. Speed: 84 mph (135 km/h)
  • Cruise Speed: 75 mph (120 km/h)
  • Ceiling: 15100 ft (4600 m)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: None

References

  1. Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35 1915 Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 05:20, October 21, 2011, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/france/morane_ms-35.php

Morane-Saulnier Type AI

Morane-Saulnier Type AI - 1917
Morane-Saulnier Type AI

The Morane-Saulnier Type AI was a French parasol-wing fighter aircraft produced by Morane-Saulnier during World War I, to replace the obsolete Morane-Saulnier Type N. Its engine was mounted in a circular open-front cowling. The parasol wing was swept back. The spars and ribs of the circular section fuselage were wood, wire-braced and covered in fabric. The production aircraft were given service designations based on whether they had 1 gun (designated MoS 27) or 2 guns (designated MoS 29).
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Morane-Saulnier AI
  • Type: fighter/trainer
  • Country: France
  • Manufacturer: Morane-Saulnier
  • First Flight: August 1917
  • Primary User: French Air Force
  • Number Built: 1210
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Monosoupape 9Nb, 9-cylinder rotary 150 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 27 ft 11 in (8.51 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 6.2 in (5.65 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 10.5 in (2.40 m)
  • Empty Weight: 912 lb (414 kg)
  • Gross Weight: 1,486 lb (674 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 137 mph (221 km/h)
  • Endurance: 1 hours 45 min
  • Service Ceiling: 7000 m (22,965 ft)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1 or 2 ×0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun foward of cockpit

References

  1. Donald, David, ed (1997)."The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft". Prospero Books. pp. pg 659. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  2. Holmes, Tony (2005). "Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide". London: Harper Collins. pp. 36. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  3. Lamberton, W.M. (1960). "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Herts: Harleyford Publications Ltd.. pp. 84-85.