Junkers Aircraft of 1917

Junkers J.I

Junkers J.I - 1917
Junkers J.I - 1917

In late 1916, the demand for a durable observation aircraft capable of performing ground attack missions led to the introduction of the Junkers J.I. Developed in early 1917, it was the world's first all-metal aircraft produced in quantity. Eliminating the need for external bracing wires, the fuselage, wings and tail were constructed of Duralumin while the engine and two-man crew were protected by a nose-capsule of 5-mm chrome-nickel sheet-steel. Although this unique design resulted in a strong and durable aircraft capable of surviving the effects of enemy ground fire, the Junkers J.I was heavy, cumbersome and took forever to get off the ground.

Junkers J.I
  • Type: Ground attack aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Junkers
  • First Flight: 1917
  • Entered Service: August 1917
  • Number Built: 227
  • Powerplant:
    • Benz BZ.IV, in-line water-cooled engine, 200 hp (147 kW)
    • Daimler-Mercedes D.IVa 191 kW (1918)
  • Wing Span: 52 ft 6 in (16 m)
  • Length: 29 ft 10.5 in (9.1 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 1 7/8 in (3.4 m)
  • Empty Weight: 3,893 lb (1,766 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 4,718 lb (2,140 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 96 mph (155 km/h)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 2 machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Junkers_J-I, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_J.I"
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 538.
  3. "Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1919", p. 320a-321a
  4. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 898 Sheet 01.

Junkers Aircraft of 1918

Junkers CL.I

Junkers Cl.I - 1918
Junkers CL.I - 1918
Junkers Cl.I - 1918
Junkers CLS.I - 1918

The Junkers CL.I was a ground-attack monoplaine aircraft developed in Germany during World War I. Its construction was undertaken by Junkers under the designation J 8. as proof of Hugo Junkers' belief in the monoplane, after his firm had been required by the Idflieg to submit a biplane (the J 4) as its entry in a competition to select a ground-attack aircraft.

The J 8 design took the J 7 fighter as its starting point, but had a longer fuselage to accommodate a tail gunner, and larger wings. The prototype flew in late 1917 and was followed over the next few months by three more development aircraft.

Junkers CL.I
  • Type: Ground-attack aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Junkers
  • First flight: December 10, 1917
  • Entered Service: 1918
  • Number built: 5
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IIIa, water cooled 6-cylinder in-line, 180 hp (134 kW)
  • Wingspan: 39 ft 6 in (12.04 m)
  • Length: 25 ft 11 in (7.90 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 8¼ in (2.65 m)
  • Wing area: 253 ft² (23.4 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 1,562 lb (710 kg)
  • Loaded Weight 2,310 lb (1,050 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 100 mph (161 km/h)
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Service Ceiling: 19,700 ft (6,000 m)
  • Crew: Two, pilot and gunner
  • Armament:
    • 2 × fixed, forward-firing machine guns
    • 1 × trainable, rearward-firing machine gun

The Idflieg was sufficiently impressed to want to order the type, but had misgivings about Junkers' ability to manufacture the aircraft in quantity and considered asking Linke-Hoffmann to produce the type under licence. Finally, however, Junkers was allowed to undertake the manufacture as part of a joint venture with Fokker, producing a slightly modified version of the J 8 design as the J 10. Like the other Junkers designs of the period, the aircraft featured a metal framework that was skinned with corrugated duralumin sheets. 47 examples were delivered before the Armistice, including three built as floatplanes under the designation CLS.I (factory designation J 11). After the war, one or two CL.Is were converted for commercial service by enclosing the rear cockpit under a canopy.

References

  1. From Wikipedia Junkers CL.I "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_CL.I"
  2. Green, W; Swanborough, G (1994). "The Complete Book of Fighters. New York: Smithmark. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  3. Gray, Peter; Thetford, Owen (1962). German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 536.
  5. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 897 Sheet 01.

Junkers D.I

 Junkers D.I - 1918
Junkers D.I - 1918

The Junkers D.I (factory designation J 9) was a fighter aircraft produced in Germany late in World War I, significant for becoming the first all-metal fighter to enter service.

What really set the Junker D.I apart from any previous aircraft was it's cantilevered low-wing design and corrugated duralumin skin. Duralumin, the same metal used for Zeppelin construction, was light yet strong. The Junkers monoplane was rugid, fast, and agile. The D.I was every fighter pilots' dream. The design was a decade ahead of its time appearing a year too late.
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Junkers D.I
  • Manufacturer: Junkers-Fokker Flugzeugwerke AG.
  • Type: Fighter
  • First Introduced: 1918
  • Powerplant: BMW IIIa, 6 cylinder, in-line, 185 hp. (138 kW)
  • Wingspan: 29 ft 6.3 in (9.00 m
  • Length: 23 ft 9.4 in (7.25 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 6 in (2.60 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,438 lb (654 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,834 lb (834 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 140 mph (225 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 19,700 ft (6,000 m)
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: × Spandau 7.92 mm machine guns

References

  1. "Junkers D.I", From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_D.I
  2. Kay, Anthony L. "Junkers Aircraft and engines 1913-1945" p. 28 (2004). London: Putnam Aeronautical Books ISBN 0 85177 985 9
  3. Grosz, Peter; Terry, Gerard (1984). "The Way to the World's First All-Metal Fighter". Air Enthusiast 25 (August - November 1984): Pages 60-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  4. Holmes, Tony (2005). "Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide". London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  5. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 536.
  6. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 898 Sheet 1.