The German aircraft industry excelled in producing efficient aircraft for high altitude reconnaissance duties and pioneered the use of aircraft specifically designed for the ground attack role.

Albatros C.XII

Albatros C.XII  - 1917
Albatros C.XII s/n 2156/17
Albatros C.XII  - 1919
Albatros C.XII 6 Eskadra Lotnicza, s/n 1832/17 - 1919

The Albatros C.XII was a German military reconnaissance aircraft which saw service during the late period of World War I. It differed markedly from previous Albatros C-type aircraft by adopting an elliptical-section fuselage similar to that of the Albatros D.V. The C.XII also featured a tailplane of reduced area, but it retained the wings of the earlier Albatros C.X.
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Albatros C.XII
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Entered Service: 1918
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IVa, inline water-cooled engine, 260 hp (190 kW)
  • Wingspan: 46 ft 4 in (14.12 m)
  • Wing Area: 459 ft² (42.7 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft (8.84 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,280 lb (580 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,340 lb (1,061 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 110 mph (178 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 18,500 ft (5,640 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 820 ft/min (4.2 m/s)
  • Endurance: 4 hours 20 min
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) "Spandau" LMG 08/15 machine gun
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) trainable Parabellum MG14 machine gun for observer

References

  1. From Wikipedia Albatros C.XII, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albatros_C.XII"
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 53.
  3. Grosz, Peter M. (2007). "Windsock Datafile 126 Albatros C.XII" Vol.1. Berkhamsted: Albatros Productions Ltd..
  4. Grosz, Peter M. (2008). "Windsock Datafile 129 Albatros C.XII" Vol.2. Berkhamsted: Albatros Productions Ltd..

Albatros C.XV

Albatros C.XV - 1918
Albatros C.XV, Germany 1918
Albatros C.XV - 1920
Albatros C.XV s/n 23-3, Oct-1920-Jan-1921
16 Eskadra Wywiadowcza (Eskadra Lotnicza Litwy Srodkowej)

The Albatros C.XV was a German military reconnaissance aircraft developed during World War I. It was essentially a refinement of the C.XII put into production in 1918. The war ended before any examples became operational, however some found their way into civilian hands and flew as transport aircraft in peacetime under the factory designation L 47. Others saw service with the air forces of Russia, Turkey, and Latvia.

Albatros C.XV
  • Role: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Nation of Origin: Germany
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • Factory Designation: L 47
  • Primary Operator: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IVa, 260 hp (190 kW)
  • Wingspan: 47 ft 2 in (14.37 m)
  • Wing Area: 459 ft² (42.7 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft 0 in (8.85 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,250 lb (1,021 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,613 lb (1,639 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 110 mph (175 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 16,400 ft (5,000 m)
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • 1 × forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun
    • 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun for observer

References

  1. Albatros C.XV. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:47, July 17, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albatros_C.XV&oldid=360031378
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 53.

Halberstadt CL.IV

Halberstadt CL.IV - 1918
Halberstadt CL.IV
Halberstadt CL.IV - 1918
Halberstadt C.IV Estonia 1918

The Halberstadt CL.IV was one of the most effective ground attack aircraft of World War I, relying on its good maneuverability to avoid ground fire. It appeared on the Western Front towards the end of the German offensives in 1918. Karl Thies, chief designer of the Halberstädter Flugzeugwerke, G.m.b.H., designed the CL.IV as a replacement for the CL.II, which was very successful in harassing Allied troops. Purpose of an improved version was to create a superior ground attack aircraft.
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Halberstadt CL.IV
  • Type: Ground Attack Aircraft
  • Nation of Origin: German Empire
  • Designed By: Karl Theis
  • Manufacturer:
    • Halberstädter Flugzeugwerke: c 450 aircraft
    • Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft G.m.b.H.(LFG Roland): c 250 aircraft
  • Entered Service: 1918
  • Number Built: Aproximately 700
  • Primary Users: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D.III 6-cylinder in-line engine, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 2.75 in (10.74 m)
  • Length: 21 ft 5.5 in (6.54 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 9 in (2.67 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,605 lb (728 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,354 lb (1,068 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 104 mph (186 km/h)
  • Endurance: 3.25 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns:
    • 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 “Spandau” synchronized machine gun
    • 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) “Parabellum” MG14 machine gun, on ring mount for observer
    • Bombs: Up to 5 × 20 lb (10 kg)

References

  1. From Wikipedia Halberstadt CL.IV, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halberstadt_CL.IV"
  2. Gerdessen, F. "Estonian Air Power 1918-1945". Air Enthusiast No 18, April -July 1982. Pages 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450.

Halberstadt C.V

Halberstadt C.V - 1918
Halberstadt C.V
Halberstadt CL.IV - 1918
Halberstadt C.V Estonia - 1918

The Halberstadt C.V was a German single-engined photo-reconnaissance biplane designed by Karl Theis. The C.V was built by Halberstädter Flugzeugwerke G.m.b.H. The first flight was in March of 1918, it proved very manoeuverable and superior to other type aircraft in its class. The C.V entered service in late 1918 where it saw limited service with the Luftstreitkräfte during the final months of the war.

The C.V was developed as a refinement of the Halberstadt C.III. The aircraft was fitted with a more powerful supercharged 160 kW (220 hp) Benz Bz.IV engine modified for high altitude flying by raising the compression in the cylinders. Armament consisted of a foreward firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 machine gun operated by the pilot, and a trainable parabellum machine gun operated by the observer. It could also carry up to 110 pounds (50kgs) of bombs. Initially a 250mm camera was mounted in the observer's cockpit floor. An electrical generator driven by the engine powered heated flying suits worn by the crew, and radio equipment.
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Halberstadt C.V
  • Role: Reconnaissance
  • Nation of Origin: German Empire
  • Designed By: Karl Theis
  • Manufacturer: Halberstädter Flugzeugwerke G.m.b.H.
  • First Flight: March 1918
  • Introduction: 1918
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Developed From: Halberstadt C.III
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.IV 6-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, 220 hp (160 kW)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 8 in (13.62 m)
  • Wing Area: 461.776 ft² (42.9 m²)
  • Length: 22 ft 8 in (6.92 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 0 in (3.36 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2 050 lb (930 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,730 lb (1,238 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 92 kn, 106 mph (170 km/h)
  • Rate of Climb: 24 minutes to 16,405 ft (5000 m)
  • Wing loading: 6.56 lbs/ft² (32.00 kg/m²)
  • Service Ceiling: 16,405 ft (5,000 m)
  • Range: 270 nm (500 km)
  • Endurance: 3 hr 30 mins
  • Crew: Two
  • Armament:
    • Pilot: 1 × fixed 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 “Spandau” machine gun
    • Observer: 1 × trainable 0.312 in (7.92 mm) parabellum machine gun
    • Bomb Load: 110 lb (50kg) of bombs

References

  1. Halberstadt C V 1918 The Virtual Aviation Museum Retrieved 02:23, March 28, 2011, from http://www.luftfahrtmuseum.com/htmi/itf/halc5.htm
  2. Halberstadt C.V. (2011, January 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 02:23, March 28, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Halberstadt_C.V&oldid=409268310
  3. 1914-1918 Connections Halberstadt C.V Mike Lewis. Retrieved 07:31 March 26, 2011 from http://www.mikerlewis.com/halb/index_cv.html
  4. Jackson, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft, Paragon, 2002. ISBN 0-75258-130-9
  5. Gray, Peter and Owen Thetford. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962, p. 100. ISBN 0-93385-271-1
  6. Grey, C.G. Jane's all the world's aircraft 1919 (reprint). New York: Arco Publishing Company, 1969. ISBN 0-0001-890-1.
  7. Grosz, Peter M. Halberstadt C V Windsock Datafile # 69 Albatros Productions Ltd. 1998 ISBN: 1-902207-02-5

Junkers CL.I

Junkers Cl.I - 1918
Junkers CL.I
Junkers Cl.I - 1918
Junkers CLS.I

The Junkers CL.I was a ground-attack monoplaine aircraft developed in Germany during World War I. Its construction was undertaken by Junkers under the designation J 8. as proof of Hugo Junkers' belief in the monoplane, after his firm had been required by the Idflieg to submit a biplane (the J 4) as its entry in a competition to select a ground-attack aircraft.

The J 8 design took the J 7 fighter as its starting point, but had a longer fuselage to accommodate a tail gunner, and larger wings. The prototype flew in late 1917 and was followed over the next few months by three more development aircraft.

Junkers CL.I
  • Type: Ground-attack aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Junkers
  • First flight: December 10, 1917
  • Entered Service: 1918
  • Number built: 5
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IIIa, water cooled 6-cylinder in-line, 180 hp (134 kW)
  • Wingspan: 39 ft 6 in (12.04 m)
  • Length: 25 ft 11 in (7.90 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 8¼ in (2.65 m)
  • Wing area: 253 ft² (23.4 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 1,562 lb (710 kg)
  • Loaded Weight 2,310 lb (1,050 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 100 mph (161 km/h)
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Service Ceiling: 19,700 ft (6,000 m)
  • Crew: Two, pilot and gunner
  • Armament:
    • 2 × fixed, forward-firing machine guns
    • 1 × trainable, rearward-firing machine gun

The Idflieg was sufficiently impressed to want to order the type, but had misgivings about Junkers' ability to manufacture the aircraft in quantity and considered asking Linke-Hoffmann to produce the type under licence. Finally, however, Junkers was allowed to undertake the manufacture as part of a joint venture with Fokker, producing a slightly modified version of the J 8 design as the J 10. Like the other Junkers designs of the period, the aircraft featured a metal framework that was skinned with corrugated duralumin sheets. 47 examples were delivered before the Armistice, including three built as floatplanes under the designation CLS.I (factory designation J 11). After the war, one or two CL.Is were converted for commercial service by enclosing the rear cockpit under a canopy.

References

  1. From Wikipedia Junkers CL.I "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_CL.I"
  2. Green, W; Swanborough, G (1994). "The Complete Book of Fighters. New York: Smithmark. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  3. Gray, Peter; Thetford, Owen (1962). German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 536.
  5. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 897 Sheet 01.

LVG C.VI

LVG C.VI - 1918
LVG C.VI Luftstreitkräfte - 1918
LVG C.VI - 1918
LVG C.VI Lithuanian Air Force - 1918

LVG C.VI was a German two-seat reconnaissance and artillery spotting aircraft used during World War I.

The aircraft was designed by Willy Sabersky-Müssigbrodt and developed by Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (LVG) in 1917. The C.VI was a further development of the C.V, which Sabersky-Müssigbrodt had made for his former employer DFW. It was lighter, smaller and aerodynamically refined, although its fuselage seemed more bulky. It was a biplane of mixed, mostly wooden construction. It featured a semi-monocoque fuselage, plywood covered. Rectangular wings of wooden and metal construction, canvas covered. Upper wing of slightly greater span, shifted some 25 cm (10 in) towards front. Vertical fin plywood covered, rudder and elevators of metal frame canvas covered, stabilizers (tailplanes) of wooden frame canvas covered. Straight uncovered engine in the fuselage nose, with a chimney-like exhaust pipe. Two-blade Benz wooden propeller, 2.88 m (9.45 ft) diameter. Flat water radiator in central section of upper wing. Fixed conventional landing gear, with a straight common axle and a rear skid. Aircraft were equipped with a radio (morse send only); transmissions were by means of an antenna which could be lowered below the aircraft when needed. The crew had parachutes and heated flying suits. A total of 1,100 aircraft of the type were manufactured.

Most LVG C.VIs were used by the German military aviation in last operations of World War I, mostly on Western Front, for close reconnaissance and observation.
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LVG C.VI
  • Role: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft G.m.b.H.
  • First flight: 1917
  • Introduction: 1918
  • Produced: 1918
  • Number built: 1,100
  • Developed from: LVG C.V
  • Designer: Sabersky-Müssigbrodt
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Operators:
    • Belgium Belgian Air Force
    • Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Air Force
    • Finland Finnish Air Force, Suomen ilmailuliikenne Oy
    • German Empire Luftstreitkräfte Deutsche Luft-Reederei
    • Latvia Latvian Air Force
    • Lithuania Lithuanian Air Force
    • Poland Polish Air Force
    • Soviet Union
    • Sweden Swedish Navy
    • Switzerland Swiss Air Force
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.IV 6-cylinder, water-cooled, straight engine, 200 hp (147 kW)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft 8 in (13.00 m)
  • Wing area: (37 m²)
  • Length: 24 ft 5 in (7.45 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 4 in (2.85 m)
  • Empty weight: (945 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 3,060 lb (1,390 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 92 kn, 103 mph (170 km/h)
  • Range: 216 nmi, 242 mi (400 km)
  • Service ceiling: 21300 ft (6,500 m)
  • Rate of climb: 550 ft/min (2.78 m/s)
  • Armament:
    • Pilot: 1 × .312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 fixed with an interruptor gear
    • Observer: 1 × .312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun on a ring mounting
    • Bombs: 200 lb (90 kg) of bombs
  • Crew: 2: pilot, observer

References

  1. LVG C.VI. (2012, July 1). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:20, July 16, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=LVG_C.VI&oldid=500140488
  2. Heinonen, Timo: Thulinista Hornetiin - Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseon julkaisuja 3, Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseo, 1992, ISBN 951-95688-2-4
  3. Krzysztof Choloniewski, Wieslaw Baczkowski: Samoloty wojskowe obcych konstrukcji 1918-1939. Tomik 2 (Barwa w lotnictwie polskim no.7), WKiL, Warsaw 1987, ISBN 83-206-0728-0 (Polish language)
  4. Lewis, Michael: 1914-18 Connections website. Restoration of Brussels Air Museum LVG CVI