The German aircraft industry excelled in producing efficient aircraft for high altitude reconnaissance duties and pioneered the use of aircraft specifically designed for the ground attack role.

AEG C.IV

AEG C.IV - 1917
AEG C.IV
AEG N.I Night Bomber - 1917
AEG N.I Night Bomber - 1917

The AEG C.IV was a two-seat biplane reconnaissance aircraft produced by Allgemeine Elektrizitats-Gesellschaft (AG). The C.IV was based on the C.II, but featured a larger wingspan and an additional forward-firing LMG 08/15 Spandau-type 0.312 in (7.92 mm) machine gun.

The C.IV was a conventional biplane. The wings featured and equal span upper and lower wing assembly with double bays and parallel struts. The forward portion of the fuselage was contoured , producing a n aerodynamic look while the rest of the body maintained a box-like appearance. Performance was good for the time with the C.IV yielding a top speed of 98 miles per hour with a service ceiling of 16,400 feet.

The C.IV entered active service during the spring of 1916. By June of 1917, no fewer than 150 examples were operating along the Western Front .
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AEG C.IV
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft
  • Entered Service: 1916
  • Number Built: Around 400
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D.III water-cooled in-line engine, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 2 in (13.46 m)
  • Wing Area: 420 ft² (39 m²)
  • Length: 23 ft 5.25 in (7.15 m)
  • Height: 11 ft (3.35 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,764 lb (802 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,469 lb (1,120 kg)
  • Maximum Takeoff Weight: 2,469 lb (1,120 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 98 mph (158 km/h)
  • Range: 280 mi (450 km)
  • Service ceiling: 16,400 ft (5,000 m)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Crew: 2, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 "Spandau" machine gun
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in ring mount for observer
    • Bombs: up to 220 lb (100 kg)

References

  1. From Wikipedia AEG C.IV, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AEG_C.IV"
  2. The Great War Flying Museum http://www.greatwarflyingmuseum.com/aircraft/germany/aeg_civ.html
  3. Axelrod, Alan. "World War I". Indianapolis: Macmillan USA, Inc, 2000.
  4. Sharpe, Michael (2000). "Biplanes, Triplanes, and Seaplanes". London: Friedman/Fairfax Books. p. 14.
  5. Bullock, David L. Allenby's "War: The Palestine-Arabian Campaigns 1916-18". London: Blandford Press, 1988.
  6. Cron, Hermann. "Imperial German Army 1914-18". Solihull, West Midlands, UK: Helion & Company, 2002.
  7. Flanagan, Brian P.; Smith, Frank; and Raidor, Lonnie. "The Great War 1914-1918 - Chronology of Events of World War I: Cross and Cockade (US)", various volumes and issues covering the period 1916 to 1918. Cross and Cockade (US).
  8. Franks, Norman; Frank Bailey, and Rick Duiven "Casualties of the German Air Service 1914-1920". London: Grub Street, 1999.
  9. Franks, Norman; Frank Bailey, and Russell Guest. "Above the Lines". London: Grub Street, 1998.
  10. Groschel, Dieter H. M, "Ein Verlust der bayerischen Flieger-Abteilung 304 an der Palästina-Front 1918", Das Propellerblatt Nummer 7, 2003.
  11. Groschel, Dieter H. M. and Div Gavish. "Rudolf Holzhausen - Weltkriegsflieger, Dipolmat, und Historiker". Das Propellerblatt Nummer 9, 2004.
  12. Grosz, Peter M. "Windsock Datafile 67 AEG C.IV". Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, UK: Albatros Publications, Ltd., 1998.
  13. Imrie, Alex. "Pictorial History of the German Army Air Service 1914-1918". Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1973.
  14. Hoeppner, Ernest, General von. "Germany's War in the Air". Nashville, TN: The Battery Press, 1994.
  15. Nicolle, David. "The Ottoman Army 1914-18", Osprey Men-at-Arms Series No. 269. London, UK: Osprey Publications, Ltd 1994.
  16. Nikolajsen, Ole. "Pilot Fazil Bey Turkish Aviation Hero, Over the Front Volume 22 No. 3". Journal of the League of World War I Aviation Historians, 2007.
  17. Perrett, Bryan. "Megiddo 1918: The Last Great Cavalry Victory", Osprey Campaign Series No. 61. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publications, Ltd 1999.
  18. Rottgardt, Dirk. "German Armies' Establishment 1914/18", Volume 4: German Forces in the Middle East. West Chester, Ohio: The Nafziger Collection, Inc., 2007.
  19. Sanders, Liman, General von. "Five Years in Turkey". Nashville, TN: The Battery Press, 2000.
  20. Shores, Christopher; Norman Franks, and Russell Guest. "Above the Trenches. A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Forces 1915-1920". London: Grub Street, 1990.
  21. WWI Aero, volume 107 (for C Types), Dec 1985
  22. Zankl, Reinhard. "Deutsche Flieger-Einheiten 1914-1918": Folge 3 - Flieger-Abteilungen. Das Propellerblatt Nummer 3, 2002.

Albatros C.V

Albatros C.V - 1916
Albatros C.V

The Albatros C.V was a German military reconnaissance aircraft which saw service in early 1916.

The C.V was Albatros Flugzeugwerke's first revision of their B- and C-type reconnaissance aircraft since Ernst Heinkel left the firm for Hansa-Brandenburg. While retaining the same basic layout as the Heinkel-designed aircraft, the C.V featured considerably refined streamlining. The forward fuselage was skinned in sheet metal and a neat, rounded spinner covered the propeller boss. Power was provided by the new Mercedes D.IV, a geared eight-cylinder engine.

The initial production version, designated C.V/16, suffered from heavy control forces and inadequate engine cooling. Albatros therefore produced the C.V/17 with a new lower wing, as well as balanced ailerons and elevators. The fuselage-mounted radiators were replaced by a single flush radiator in the upper wing.
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Albatros C.V
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Entered Service: early 1916
  • Retired: early 1917
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Number Built: Aproximately 400
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IV, 164 kW (220 hp)
  • Wingspan: 12.78 m (41 ft 11 in)
  • Wing area: 43.4 m² (467 ft²)
  • Length: 8.95 m (29 ft 4 in)
  • Height: 4.5 m (14 ft 9 in)
  • Empty Weight: 1,069 kg (2,357 lb)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,585 kg (3,494 lb)
  • Maximum Speed: 170 km/h (110 mph)
  • Range: 450 km (280 miles)
  • Service Ceiling: 3,000 m (9,840 ft)
  • Rate of Climb: 2.1 m/s (410 ft/min)
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) ring-mounted Parabellum MG14 or Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun for observer
    • Bombs: 180 kg (400 lb) of bombs

References

  1. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 52.
  2. Grosz, Peter M. (2002). "Albatros C.V. Windsock Datafile 81" Berkhamsted: Albatros Productions Ltd..

Albatros C.VII

Albatros C.VII - 1916
Albatros C.VII

The Albatros C.VII was a German military reconnaissance aircraft which saw service during World War I. It was a revised and re-engined development of the C.V which had proved disappointing in service.

The C.VII replaced the C.V's unreliable Mercedes D.IV inline water-cooled 8 cylinder engine with the dependable Benz Bz.IV 200 hp (150 kW) 6 cylinder inline water-cooled engine.Once again the radiators were placed on the fuselage sides and the lower wing reverted to the raked tips of the C.V/16. The complete tail assembly was identical to that of the C.V/17.

The refinements made to the control surfaces, created an aircraft with excellent handling characteristics. The Albatros C.VII soon made up the bulk of German reconnaissance aircraft, with as many as 350 serving on all Fronts by February of 1917. The Albatros C.VII played an important role in the 1916/17 winter campaigns.
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Albatros C.VII
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • Entered Service: 1916
  • Retired: mid 1917
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Number Built: Over 600
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.IV, inline water-cooled engine, 200 hp (150 kW)
  • Wingspan: 41 ft 11 in (12.78 m)
  • Wing area: 467 ft² (43.4 m²)
  • Length: 28 ft 6 in (8.70 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 6 in (3.8 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,180 lb (989 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,420 lb (1,550 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 110 mph (170 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 16,500 ft (5,000 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 630 ft/min (3.2 m/s)
  • Endurance: 3 hours 20 minutes
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × fixed forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) trainable Parabellum MG14 machine gun in the observer's cockpit
    • Bombs: 90 kg (200 lb) of bombs

References

  1. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 52-53.
  2. Grosz, Peter M. (1999). "Albatros C.VII. Windsock Datafile 77" Berkhamsted: Albatros Productions Ltd..

DFW CV

DFW CV 1916  DFW CV
DFW CV

The DFW C.IV, C.V, C.VI, and F 37 were a family of German reconnaissance aircraft first used in 1916 in World War I. They were conventionally configured biplanes with unequal-span unstaggered wings and seating for the pilot and observer in tandem, open cockpits. Like the DFW C.II before them, these aircraft seated the gunner to the rear and armed him with a machine gun on a ring mount. Compared to preceding B- and C-class designs by DFW, however, the aerodynamics of the fuselage were more refined, and when coupled with more powerful engines, resulted in a machine with excellent performance.

The C.IV had a single-bay wing cellule and was powered by a 150 hp (112 kW) Benz Bz.III. It was soon replaced in production by the definitive C.V with a two-bay wing cellule and either a 150 hp (112 kW) Conrad C.III or 200 hp (149 kW) Benz Bz.IV. Predictably, the more powerful Benz engine gave significantly better performance.
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DFW CV
  • Type: Reconnaissance
  • Manufacturer: Aviatik
  • Designed By: Heinrich Oelerich - Deutsche Flugzeugwerke
  • First Flight: 1916
  • Entered Service: 1916
  • Produced: 1916-1918
  • Number Built: 3250
  • Powerplant:
    • 1× N.A.G. C.III, 6 cylinder, water cooled, in-line engine 185 hp (138 kW)
    • or
    • 1× Benz Bz.IV, 6 cylinder, water cooled, straight engine, 185 hp (138 kW) or 200 hp (149 kW)
  • Wingspan: 43.54 ft (13.27 m)
  • Wing area: 457 ft² (42.5 m²)
  • Length: 25.58 ft (7.8 m)
  • Height: 10.67 ft (3.25 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2140 lb (970 kg)
  • Maximum Takeoff Weight: 3,146 lb (1,430 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 96 mph (155 km/h)
  • Range: 311 mi (500 km)
  • Service ceiling: 16,400 ft (5,000 m)
  • Endurance: 3.5 hours
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1× 0.312 in (7.92 mm) MG-08/15 (Spandau) fixed forward-firing synchronized machine gun
    • Gun - Observer: 1× 0.312 in (7.92 mm) trainable LMG 14 Parabellum machine gun on a ring mounting
    • Bombs: 100 kg of bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia DFW C.V "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DFW_C.V"
  2. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 892 Sheet 25.
  3. Bernád, Dénes. "Balkan Birds: Thirty Five Years of Bulgarian Aircraft Production". Air Enthusiast (Stamford, Lincs, UK: Key Publishing) (94, July/August 2001): 18-30. ISSN 0143-5450.
  4. Chooniewski, Krzysztof; Wiesaw Baczkowski (1987). "Samoloty wojskowe obcych konstrukcji 1918-1939". Tomik 2. Barwa w lotnictwie polskim no.7. Warsaw: WKi. ISBN 83-206-0728-0.
  5. Gerdessen, F. "Estonian Air Power 1918-1945". Air Enthusiast (18, April - July 1982.): 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  6. Gray, Peter; Owen Thetford (1970). "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam.
  7. Krzyz.an, Marian (1983) (in Polish). "Samoloty w muzeach polskich". Warsaw: WKi. ISBN 83-206-0432-X.
  8. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 325.
  9. Wagner, Ray; Heinz Nowarra (1971). "German Combat Planes". New York: Doubleday.
  10. Wagner, Wolfgang (1987). "Der deutsche Luftverkehr- Die Pionierjahre 1919-1925". Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe.

Halberstadt CL.II

Halberstadt CL.II - 1916

The Halberstadt CL.II was the first German purpose designed aircraft for the ground attack role. The Halberstädter Flugzeug Werke began supplying the German Halberstadt D-II during the summer of 1916. The plane was created to provide air support for ground troops.

The CL.II was powered by the reliable 160 hp (120 kW), 6 cylinder in-line, watercooled Mercedes aircraft engine. and armed with three machine-guns and five 22-pound (10 kg) anti-personnel bombs, the plane soon established itself as the best ground attack fighters of the war.
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Halberstadt CL-II
  • Type: ground attack
  • Entered Service: Summer of 1916
  • Retired: 1918
  • Manufacturer: Halberstädter Flugzeugwerke
  • Primary Users: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: Mercedes, in-line 6 cylinder, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wing Span: 35 ft 4 in (10.77 m)
  • Length: 23 ft 11 in (7.3 m)
  • Height: 9 ft (2.75 m)
  • Maximum Speed: 103 mph (165 kph)
  • Service Ceiling: 16,405 ft (5,090 m)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 3 machine-guns
    • Bombs: 110 lbs (50 kg)

References

  1. From Wikipedia Halberstadt CL.II, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halberstadt_CL.II"
  2. Angelucci, Enzo (ed.). "World Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft". London: Jane's, 1981. ISBN 0 7106 0148 4.
  3. Gray, Peter and Thetford, Owen. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962.
  4. Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. "The Complete Book of Fighters". New York: Smithmark, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.

LFG Roland C.II “Walfisch”

LFG Roland C.II Walfisch - 1916

The LFG Roland C.II, usually known as the Walfisch (Whale), was an advanced German reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was manufactured by Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft G.m.b.H.

The C.II featured a monocoque fuselage built with an outer skin of two layers of thin plywood strips at an angle to each other (known as a Wickelrumpf, or "wrapped body" design). The deep fuselage completely filled the gap between the mainplanes and gave the aircraft its nickname.

The C.II was powered by a single 160 hp (120kW) Mercedes D III, providing a top speed of 165km/h, a ceiling of 4000m, and an endurance of four hours. The thin wings gave a mediocre rate of climb.
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LFG Roland C.II
  • Type: Reconnaissance Aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft G.m.b.H.
  • Entered Service:1916
  • Powerplant: 1x Mercedes D.III water-cooled in-line, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Length: ft in (7,52 m)
  • Wingspan: ft in (10,33 m)
  • Loaded Weight: lb (1309 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: mph at ft (165 km/h at sea level)
  • Service Ceiling: (4000 m)
  • Endurance: 4 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • 1× forward firing Spandau 7.92mm gun on later models
    • 1× Parabellum gun observer cockpit
    • 4 x 12,5 kg bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia LFG Roland C.II "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LFG_Roland_C.II"
  2. Munson, Kenneth - "Bombers, Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1914-1919" ISBN 0 7537 0918 X