The German aircraft industry excelled in producing efficient aircraft for high altitude reconnaissance duties and pioneered the use of aircraft specifically designed for the ground attack role.

AEG C.II

AEG C.II - 1915
AEG C.II

The AEG C.II was a German two-seat biplane reconnaissance aircraft produced in small numbers from October 1915. It was a slightly smaller version of the C.I with better performance, redesigned cockpit for both pilot and observer/bombardier, new rear mounting for a 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun, and the ability to carry four 10 kg (25 lb) bombs for light attack duties.

AEG C.II
  • Role: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft
  • Entered Service: 1915
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.III, liquid-cooled inline engine 150 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 38 ft 10.5 in (11.85 m)
  • Length: 23 ft 3.25 in (7.09 m)
  • Height: 10.40 ft (3.17 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,450 lb(680 kg)
  • Maximum Takeoff Weight: 2,646 lb (1,200 kg)
  • Payload: 90 lb (40 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 138 km/h (86 mph)
  • Range: 360 mi (580 km)
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in observer's cockpit
    • Bombs: Up to 40 kg (90 lb) of bombs

References

  1. MilitaryFactory AEG C.II "http://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=424"
  2. From Wikipedia AEG C.II, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AEG_C.II"

AGO C.I & C.II Reconnaissance Biplane

AGO C.I

AGO C.II
AGO C.I

The AGO C.I was a German reconnaissance biplane of World War I of pod-and-boom configuration. The C.1 was designd by A. Haefeli and manufactured by AGO Flugzeugwerke. The AGO C.I entered service in 1915. The design is notable in the fact that it is one of the few pusher aircraft designs coming from Germany. The central nacelle contained the cockpit and pusher configuration powerplant. The twin booms carried the tail and the four-wheeled landing gear. The observer sat at the nose and was armed with a single 7.92 mm Parabellum machine gun.

A single example was fitted with floats for coastal patrol duties for the German Navy (designation C.I-W).

AGO C.I
  • Type: Reconnaissance
  • Manufacturer: AGO Flugzeugwerke
  • Designed by: A. Haefeli
  • Entered Service: June 1915
  • Primary User: Germany
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.III inline water-cooled engine, 158 hp (117 kW)
  • Wingspan: 49 ft 2 in (15.0 m)
  • Wing Area: 447 ft² (41.5 m² )
  • Length: 29 ft 6 in (9.0 m)
  • Maximum speed: 90 mph (140 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 16,000 ft (4,800 m)
  • Range: 300 miles (480 km)
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun

AGO C.II

 AGO C.II - 1916
AGO C.II
 AGO C.II-W - 1916
AGO C.II-W

The AGO C.II was a German reconnaissance biplane that entered service in 1915 during the early years of World War I. It was essentially a slightly redesigned version of Aerowerke Gustav Otto Flugzeugwerke's C.I design with a more powerful 220 horsepower Benz VI 6-cylinder liquid-cooled inline engine. The C.II only served in the German air force for about one year before being replaced by more conventional and modernized aircraft. In spite of this fact many considered the C.II as one of the best reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War.
[Read more]

AGO C.II
  • Type: Reconnaissance
  • Manufacturer: Aerowerke Gustav Otto Flugzeugwerke
  • Designed by: A. Haefeli
  • Country: Germany
  • Entered Service: 1915
  • Primary User: Germany
  • Number Built: Not Available
  • Wingspan: 47 ft 7 in (14.5 m)
  • Wing area: 430 ft² (40 m²)
  • Length: 32 ft 3½ in (9.84 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 5 in (3.175 m)
  • Empty Weight: 3,000 lb (1,360 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 4,290 lb (1,946 kg)
  • Maximum Takeoff Weight: 4,290lbs (1,946kg)
  • Powerplant:
  • 1 × Mercedes D.IV, 6-cylinder, liquid cooled inline, 217 hp (162 kW)
  • Or:
  • 1 × Benz Bz IV, 6-cylinder, liquid cooled inline, 220 hp (164 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 90 mph (145 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 14,800 ft (4,500 m)
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia AGO C.I "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AGO_C.I"
  2. From Wikipedia AGO C.II "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AGO_C.II"
  3. Van Wyngarden, G (2006). "Early German Aces of World War I", Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-841-76997-5
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 39.
  5. Das Virtuelle Luftfahrtmuseum

Albatros C.I

Albatros C.I - 1915
Albatros C.I

The Albatros C.I was the first of the successful C-series of two-seat general-purpose biplanes built by Albatros Flugzeugwerke during World War I. Based on the unarmed Albatros B.II, the C.I reversed the pilot and observer seating so that the observer occupied the rear cockpit which was fitted with a ring-mounted 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun.

When the C.I first appeared in early 1915, its good handling and powerful 150 hp (110 kW) Benz Bz.III engine gave it an edge over most Allied aircraft. During development of the type, successively more powerful engines were fitted, culminating in the 130 kW (180 hp) Argus As III which allowed the final version of the C.Ia to achieve 87 mph (140 km/h) at sea level with an operational ceiling of 9,840 ft (3,000 m). A dual-control variant, designated the C.Ib, was built as a trainer aircraft by Mercur Flugzeugbau. Improvements to the C.I resulted in the Albatros C.III which became the most prolific of the Albatros C-types.

While the C.I was operated mainly in a reconnaissance and observation role, it also had some success as an early fighter aircraft - Oswald Boelcke claimed his first victory while flying a C.I with Lt. von Wühlisch as the gunner. Germany's most famous World War I aviator, Manfred von Richthofen, also began his career as an observer in the C.I on the Eastern Front.

Albatros C.I
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • Introduced: 1915
  • Retired: 1917
  • Developed from: Albatros B.II
  • Variants:
    • C.I: Two-seat reconnaissance aircraft. First production version.
    • C.Ia: Improved version powered by more powerful Argus As III engine.
    • C.Ib: Dual-control training version built by Mercur Flugzeugbau.
    • C.I-V: Experimenal aircraft. One built.
  • Operators:
    • German Empire: Luftstreitkräfte
    • Lithuania: Lithuanian Air Force operated this type postwar.
    • Poland: Polish Air Force operated 49 aircraft postwar.
  • Powerplant: 1× Benz Bz.III liquid-cooled inline engine, 150 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft 4 in (12.9 m)
  • Length: 25 ft 9 in (7.85 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 4 in (3.14 m)
  • Loaded weight: 2,620 lb (1,190 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 76 kn, 87 mph (140 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 9,840 ft (3,000 m)
  • Endurance: 2.5 hrs
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in observer's cockpit

References

  1. Albatros C.I. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:36, October 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albatros_C.I&oldid=360031353
  2. Cowin, H.W. "German and Austrian Aviation of World War I". Osprey Publishing Ltd, 2000 ISBN 1-841-76069-2
  3. van Wyngarden, G (2006). "Early German Aces of World War I", Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-841-76997-5

Albatros C-III

Albatros C.III - 1915
Albatros C-III

The Albatros C.III was a German two-seat general-purpose biplane of World War I, built by Albatros Flugzeugwerke. The C.III was a refined version of the successful Albatros C.I and was eventually produced in greater numbers than any other C-type Albatros. It was used in a wide variety of roles including observation, photo-reconnaissance, light-bombing and bomber escort.

Like its predecessor, the C.III was a popular aircraft with rugged construction and viceless handling. The most prominent difference between the two was the revised tail, the C.III having a lower, rounded tail compared to the large, triangular tail of the C.I, granting the C.III greater agility. The powerplant was either a 110 kW (150 hp) Benz Bz. III or a 120 kW (160 hp) Mercedes D.III inline engine and, like numerous other two-seaters of the war (such as the British Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8) the cylinder head and exhaust manifold protruded above the front fuselage, limiting the pilot's forward visibility.
[Read more]

Albatros C.III
  • Type: Reconnaissance/Bomber
  • Entered Service: 1915
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • Primary Users: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Wingspan: 38 ft 4 in (11.69 m)
  • Wing Area: 397 ft² (36.91 m²)
  • Length: 26 ft 3 in (8 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 2 in (3.10 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,876 lb (851 kg)
  • Max takeoff Weight: 2,983 lb (1,353 kg)
  • Powerplant:
    • 1 × Benz Bz.III, liquid-cooled inline engine 150 hp (112 kW)
    • or
    • 1 ×Mercedes D.III liquid-cooled inline engine, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 87 mph (140 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 11,000 ft (3,350 m)
  • Endurance: 4 hours
    • Crew: two
    • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) MG 08 in the nose
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in observer's cockpit
    • Bombs: up to 200 lbs of bombs

References

  1. Albatros C.III. (2010, August 15). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:22, August 29, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albatros_C.III&oldid=379051127
  2. Sharpe, Michael. Biplanes, "Triplanes, and Seaplanes", pg.28. London, England: Friedman/Fairfax Books , 2000. ISBN 1-58663-300-7.
  3. Y. MIlanov: "The aviation in Bulgaria in the wars from 1912 to 1945", Vol.I. Sveti Gueorgui Pobedonosetz, Sofia, 1995 (in Bulgarian)
  4. Bernád, Dénes. "Balkan Birds: Thirty Five Years of Bulgarian Aircraft Production". Air Enthusiast (Stamford, Lincs, UK: Key Publishing) (94, July/August 2001): 18-30. ISSN 0143-5450.

Aviatik B.II

Aviatik B.II
Aviatik B.II

The Aviatik B.II was a reconnaissance aircraft built in Germany and Austria-Hungary during World War I. It was a two-seat biplane of conventional configuration that seated its pilot and observer in tandem, open cockpits. Compared to its predecessor, the B.I, the B.II had a more powerful engine and revised nose design that faired the powerplant in more neatly, and a single "rhino horn" collector stack for the exhaust. A variety of two- and three-bay wing designs were utilised during production.

While originally no armament was fitted (in common with other B - class aircraft), later production versions received a machine gun for the observer. All were withdrawn from front-line service by early 1916, however the type continued in use as a trainer for a time with advanced flying training units

Aviatik B.II
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Aviatik
  • Designed By: Robert Wild
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Entered Service: 1915
  • Retired: 1916
  • Primary Users:
    • Luftstreitkräfte
    • Kaiserliche und Konigliche Luftfahrtruppen
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.II, 120 hp (88 kW)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft 6 in (12.35 m)
  • Length: 23 ft 3 in (7.10 m)
  • Maximum Speed: 60 mph (100 km/h)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Service Ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
  • Endurance: 4 hours
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Early Models: None
    • Later Models: 1× 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun, observer cockpit

References

  1. From Wikipedia Aviatik B.II, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aviatik_B.II"
  2. Cowin, H.W. "German and Austrian Aviation of World War I". Osprey Publishing Ltd, 2000 ISBN 1-841-76069-2
  3. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 89.
  4. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 889 Sheet 89.

Aviatik C.I - C.III

Aviatik C.I - 1915
Aviatik C.I
Aviatik C.II - 1915
Aviatik C.II - 1915

The Aviatik C.I was a World War I observation aircraft which first came into service in September 1915 . It was the successor to the Aviatik B.I and B.II models. The observer sat in front of the pilot in this model which limited the gunner's field of fire. However, the opportunity was presented for more aggressive aircrews to take an increased offensive approach in engaging enemy aircraft. The positions of the pilot and gunner were reversed in the C.Ia version. Later models, the C.II and C.III were produced in large numbers and had more powerful engines.

Aviatik C.I
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Automobil und Aviatikwerke AG
  • First flight: 1915
  • Introduced: 1915
  • Retired: 1917
  • Operators: German Empire Luftstreitkräfte
  • Variants
    • C.II: Powered by 149 kW (200 hp) Benz Bz. IV engine. Not produced in quantity
    • C.III: 1916 refinement, operated until 1917.
  • Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D III 6 cylinder water cooled in-line, 160 hp (119 kW)
  • Wingspan: 41 ft 0.25 in (12.5 m)
  • Wing Area: 465.4 ft² (43 m²)
  • Length: 26 ft 0 in (7.925 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 8.125 in (2.95 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,650 lb (750 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,948 lb (1,340 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 77 knots, 88.75 mph (142 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 11,500 ft (3,500 m)
  • Wing Loading: 6.33 lb/ft² (31.2 kg/m²)
  • Power/Mass: 0.054hp/lb (0.089 kW/kg)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Climb to: 3,050 ft (1,000 m): 12 min
  • Crew: Two
  • Armament: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun, in rear cockpit

References

  1. van Wyngarden, G. "Early German Aces of World War 1". Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2006, p.6. ISBN 1-84176-997-5
  2. Taylor, Michael J H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". Portland House, 1989, p.88. ISBN 0-517-69186-8
  3. Gray, Peter and Thetford, Owen. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962, pp.62—63.

LVG C.II

LVG C.II - 1915
LVG C.II

The LVG C.I was a 1910s German two-seat reconnaissance biplane designed by Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (LVG) for the Luftstreitkräfte.

The C.II was developed from the LVG B.I, with the pilot and observer positions reversed, adding a ring-mounted machine gun to the rear. The increase in weight required a larger engine, the Benz Bz.III. Few C.I's were built before the C.II was introduced. It incorporated structural improvements and a more powerful engine.

The C.II was the first fixed-wing aircraft to bomb London, when six bombs were dropped near Victoria station on 28 November 1915. (The first air raid on London was by the Zeppelin LZ 38, in the early hours of 1st June 1915.)
[Read more]

LVG C.II
  • Type: Reconnaissance/light bomber
  • Manufacturer: Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft
  • Introduced: late 1915
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Number Built : approx. 300
  • Developed From: LVG B.I
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.III, 160 hp (119 kW)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft 2 in (12.85 m)
  • Wing Area: 404.74 ft² (37.60 m²)
  • Length: 26 ft 7 in (8.10 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 7.25 in (2.93 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,863 lb (845 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,097 lb (1,405 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 81 mph (130 km/h)
  • Endurance: 4 hours
  • Service Ceiling: 13,125 ft (4,000 m)
  • Crew: Two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × flexible 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × fixed, forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 machine gun (later production aircraft)
    • Bombs: up to 130 lb (60 kg) of light bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia LVG C.I "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LVG_C.I"
  2. Donald, David, The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft" (pg 553). (1997). Prospero Books. ISBN 1-85605-375-X
  3. Van Wyngarden, G (2006). "Early German Aces of World War I", Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-841-76997-5

Otto C.I

Otto C.I
Otto C.I

Otto C.I reconnaissance biplane Twin-boom pusher reconnaissance biplane, built by Gustav Otto in 1915, with box-shaped booms and fuselage gondola, powered by a 165 hp Benz Bz.III pusher engine. The design was renowned for its stable, reliable yet nimble behaviour and good handling characteristics both on the ground and in the air.

Thirteen Otto C.I 2 seat twin-boomed biplane bombers (150 hp) delivered to Bojurishte Bulgaria in the spring of 1916. Used by 2 Aeroplane Otdelenie at Udovo airfield in the bombing and reconnaissance roles. Still used at the start of 1917 for reconnaissance but soon withdrawn in favour of the Albatros C.III.

Otto C.I
  • Type: Bomber - Reconnaissance Pusher Biplane
  • Country: Germany
  • Designed by: Gustav Otto
  • Entered Service: 1915
  • Powerplant: Benz D.III 6 cylinder, water-cooled inline engine,150 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 47.572 ft (14.500 m)
  • Wing Area: (47.00 m²)
  • Length: 9.60 m.
  • Empty Weight: 2017.6 lbs (915.0 kg)
  • Maximum Take off Weight: 3307.5 lbs (1500 kg)
  • Maximum Payload Weight: 220.5 lbs (100.0 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 130 km/h
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) trainable Parabellum MG14 machine gun for observer
  • Bombs: 6 × 22.05 lb (10 kg) lb (60kg)

References

  1. Aeroflight Bulgaria Air Force Aircraft Types "http://www.flight.co.uk/waf/bulgaria/af/types/ww1.htm#ottoc1"
  2. SurClaro Free Flight Simulator Downloads: "http://www.surclaro.com/fsdownload-detail-16363.html"
  3. Wings Palette color profile Otto C.I "http://wp.scn.ru/en/ww1/b/34/236"
  4. Air Power of the Kingdom of Bulgaria Part II by Dimitar Nedialkov, 2001
  5. Flanagan, Brian P., " A History of the Bulagrian Air Force 1892-1919.", Cross & Cockade Journal (U.S), Volume 23, Number 2, Summer 1982, pp. 144-159.
  6. Gray, Peter, and Thetford, Owen, "German Aircraft of the First World War", 2nd Revised Edition 1970, Putnam and Company Limited.

Rumpler C.I

Rumpler C.I - 1915
Rumpler C.I

Entering service in 1915, the Rumpler C.I, a two-seater single-engine reconnaissance biplane, was one of the first German C-type aircraft, and also one of the longest serving in its class during World War I, being retired from the last front line units only in early 1918.

The C.I was a successful design, and it was used on Western and Eastern Fronts, Macedonia, Salonika and Palestine. Early production examples were armed only with a single Parabellum machine gun on a Schneider ring mounting, but later aircraft had additionally a synchronised Spandau gun on the port side of fuselage. When used as a light bomber the C.I could also carry 100 kg of bombs.

In addition to the parent company, the Bayerische Rumpler-Werke, the Rumpler C.I was also produced by several other companies, including: the Germania Flugzeug-Werke, the Märkische Flugzeug-Werke, the Hannoversche Waggonfabrik and Albert Rinne Flugzeug-Werke. Variants included the C.Ia, which used a 180 hp Argus As.III engine instead of Mercedes D.III, the C.II, of which there's no evidence that any were actually built, 6B-1 single-seat floatplane fighter, and a Rumpler-built batch of C.Is intended for training which omitted the gun ring in the rear cockpit and was powered by a 150 hp Benz Bz.III.

It was this training role in which the C.I was latterly used, its friendly handling qualities making it suitable to be flown even by inexperienced pilots.

Rumpler C.I
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer:
    • Bayerische Rumpler-Werke
    • Germania Flugzeug-Werke
    • Märkische Flugzeug-Werke
    • Hannoversche Waggonfabrik
    • Albert Rinne Flugzeug-Werke
  • Introduced: 1915
  • Primary Users: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Produced: 1915 - 1917
  • Variants: Rumpler 6B-1
  • Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D.III water-cooled in-line, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wingspan: 12.15 m (ft in)
  • Wing area: 35.70 m² (ft)
  • Length: 7.85 m (ft in)
  • Height: 3.05 m (ft in)
  • Empty Weight: kg (lb)
  • Loaded Weight: 1330 kg (lb)
  • Maximum Speed: 152 km/h at sea level (mph at ft)
  • Service Ceiling: 5050 m 16,579 ft (ft)
  • Range: 4 hours of flying time
  • Crew: 2, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × fixed, forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 machine gun with an interruptor gear on the port side of the fuselage (in later aircraft only)
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun on a Schneider ring mounting
    • Bombs: 10 × 10 kg bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Rumpler C.I "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumpler_C.I"
  2. Munson, Kenneth - Bombers, "Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1914-1919" ISBN 0 7537 0918 X
  3. Munson, Kenneth - "Fighters, Attack and Training Aircraft 1914-1919" ISBN 0 7537 0916 3