Avro Aircraft 1911

Avro Type D

Avro Type D - 1911
Avro Type D - 1911

The Type D was a two-bay biplane of conventional configuration, with equal-span, unstaggered wings. The fuselage was triangular in cross-section, and lateral control was provided by wing warping. The first of seven aircraft flew at Brooklands on 1 April 1911.

The Type Ds were used in a variety of roles by the Avro, mostly concerned with exploring the limits of what an aeroplane could do. In its first few weeks of existence, the prototype was used to make a number of attempts on aerial endurance records, as well as demonstrations for the Parliamentary Aerial Defence Committee.
[Read more]

Avro Type D
  • Role: Experimental aircraft
  • National Origin: Britian
  • Manufacturer: A.V. Roe and Company
  • Designed by: Alliott Verdon Roe
  • First flight: 1 April 1911
  • Retired: 1914
  • Number built: 7
  • Powerplant: 1 × 4-cylinder Green C.4 inline piston, 35 hp (26 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 31 ft 0 in (9.45 m)
  • Length: 28 ft 0 in (8.53 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 2 in (2.79 m)
  • Wing area: 310 ft² (28.8 m²)
  • Gross weight: 500 lb (227 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 49 mph (78 km/h)
  • Crew: one pilot
  • Capacity: 1 passenger
  • Armament: None

References

  1. Avro Type D. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:52, December 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_Type_D&oldid=360032443
  2. Avro Type D 1911 Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 01:50, December 14, 2010, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/avro_d.php
  3. Sharpe, Michael. Biplanes, Triplanes, and Seaplanes, pg.56. London, England: Friedman/Fairfax Books , 2000. ISBN 1-58663-300-7.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 91.
  5. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 889 Sheet 92.
  6. britishaircraft.co.uk

Avro Aircraft 1912

Avro 500

Avro Type E - 1912
Avro Type E - 1912
Avro 500 - 1912
Avro 500 - 1912

The Avro Type E, Type 500, and Type 502 made up a family of early British military aircraft, regarded by Alliott Verdon Roe as his firm's first truly successful design.
[Read more]

Avro 500
  • Role: Military utility aircraft
  • National Origin: Britian
  • Manufacturer: A.V. Roe and Company
  • First flight: 3 March 1912
  • Operators:
    • United Kingdom:
    • Royal Naval Air Service
    • Royal Flying Corps
  • Number built: 18
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome rotary, 50 hp (37 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 36 ft 0 in (10.97 m)
  • Wing area: 330 ft² (30.7 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft 0 in (8.84 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 9 in (2.97 m)
  • Empty weight: 900 lb (408 kg)
  • Gross weight: 1,360 lb (617 kg)
  • Crew: one pilot
  • Capacity: 1 seat for observer, instructor, or passenger
  • Maximum speed: 61 mph (98 km/h)
  • Endurance: 2 hours 30 min
  • Rate of climb: 440 ft/min (2.2 m/s)

References

  1. Avro 500. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:27, December 9, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_500&oldid=360032279
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. (1989). London: Studio Editions. pp. 91.
  3. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 889 Sheet 92.

Avro Type F

Avro Type F - 1912
Avro Type F - 1912

The Avro Type F was an early single seat British aircraft from Avro and the first aircraft in the world to feature a completely enclosed cabin.

It was a wire-braced mid-wing monoplane of conventional configuration with a tailskid undercarriage. The fuselage itself was teardrop-shaped with flat sides and "glazed" with celluloid windows around the cabin. Two circular windows at the pilot's head level could be opened for the pilot's head to protrude when flying under poor visibility. Ingress and egress was via a trapdoor in the fuselage top. The cabin was quite cramped - at its widest point only 2 ft (60 cm) across.
[Read more]

Avro Type F
  • Role: Experimental aircraft
  • National Origin: Britian
  • Manufacturer: A.V.Roe and Company
  • First flight: 1 May 1912
  • Number built: 1
  • Powerplant: 1 × Viale 35 hp 5-cylinder radial, 35 hp (26 kW)
  • Wingspan: 29 ft 0 in (8.84 m)
  • Length: 23 ft 0 in (7.01 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 6 in (2.29 m)
  • Wing area: 158 ft² (14.7 m²)
  • Empty weight: 550 lb (250 kg)
  • Gross weight: 800 lb (360 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 65 mph (105 km/h)
  • Rate of climb: 300 ft/min (1.5 m/s)
  • Crew: one pilot

References

  1. Avro Type F. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 02:17, December 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_Type_F&oldid=360032450
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 91.
  3. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 889 Sheet 92-93.
  4. britishaircraft.co.uk

Avro Aircraft 1913

Avro 501

Avro 501 - 1913
Avro 501

The Avro Type H, Type 501, and Type 503 were a family of early British military seaplanes. They were a development of the Avro 500 design and were originally conceived of as amphibious; the prototype being fitted with a single large main float (equipped with wheels) under the fuselage, and two outrigger floats under the wings. Tests were conducted on Lake Windermere in January 1913. It was later converted to twin-float configuration and bought by the British Admiralty. It now, however, proved too heavy and was converted again - this time to a landplane.
[Read more]

AVRO 501
  • Role: Military Utility Seaplane
  • National Origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • First flight: January 1913
  • Number built: 5
  • Operators:
    • German Empire
    • United Kingdom
    • Turkey
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome rotary, 100 hp (75 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 47 ft 6 in (14.48 m)
  • Wing area: 478 ft² (44.4 m²)
  • Length: 33 ft 0 in (10.06 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 6 in (3.81 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,740 lb (789 kg)
  • Gross weight: 2,700 lb (1,225 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 55 mph (89 km/h)
  • Crew: one pilot
  • Capacity: 1 observer or passenger

References

  1. "Avro 501". (2011, January 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:57, January 31, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_501&oldid=409396299
  2. Jackson, A.J. (1990)." Avro Aircraft since 1908" (Second ed.), p. 51. London: Putnam. ISBN 0 -85177-834-8.
  3. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 91.
  4. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 889 Sheet 93.

Avro 504

Avro 504 k
Avro 504 k

Fairly sturdy and easy to fly, the Avro 504 was used by the Royal Naval Air Service to conduct bombing raids into German territory at the beginning of the war. The first plane to strafe troops on the ground, it was also the first British plane to be shot down by enemy ground fire. Better aircraft soon replaced the Avro 504 in combat, but it remained the standard British trainer for the duration of the war.

Avro 504
  • First Introduced: July 1913
  • Engines:
    • Gnome Monosoupape, rotary, 100 hp
    • Le Rhône, rotary, 110 hp. (82 kW)
    • Clerget 9B, 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Wing Span: 36 ft - 10.97 m
  • Length: 29 ft 6 in - 8.99 m
  • Height: 10 ft 5 in - 3.175 m
  • Empty Weight: 1,231 lb - 558.37 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 1,829 lb - 829.62 kg
  • Maximum Speed:
    • (Gnome) 82 mph - 131.97 kph
    • (Le Rhône) 95 mph - 152.89 kph
    • (Clerget 9B) 94 mph - 151.28 kph
  • Service Ceiling:
    • Le Rhône: 16,000 ft - 4 876.8 m
    • Gnome: 13,000 ft - 3 962.4 m
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 1 × Lewis 0.303 in (7.7 mm) machine gun

References

  1. Avro 504. (2010, November 16). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:30, December 11, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_504&oldid=397090437
  2. Bruce, J.M. The Avro 504: Historic Military Aircraft No. 8, Part I (pdf). Flight: pp.41-44. (9 July 1954). http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1954/1954%20-%201998.html.
  3. Bruce, J.M. The Avro 504: Historic Military Aircraft No. 8, Part II (pdf). Flight: pp.83-88. (16 July 1954). http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1954/1954%20-%202060.html.
  4. Bruce, J. M. Warplanes of the First World War - Fighter, Volume One, (1965) Great Britain. London: Macdonald.
  5. Donald, David (Editor). The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft (1997). Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  6. Holmes, Tony. Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide (2005). London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  7. Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908 (Second ed.) (1990). London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  8. Mason, Francis K. The British Fighter since 1912 (1992). Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  9. Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914 (1994). London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
  10. Mikesh, Robert C.; Abe, Shorzoe. Japanese Aircraft 1910-1914 (1990). London: Putnam. ISBN 0 85177 840 2.
  11. Taylor, M J H (Editor). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation (1980). Jane's Publishing Company.

Avro Aircraft 1916

Avro 523 Pike

Avro 523 - 1916
Avro 523 Pike - 1916

The Avro 523 Pike (the first Avro aircraft to receive a name) was a British multi-role combat aircraft of the First World War that did not progress past the prototype stage. It was intended to provide the Royal Naval Air Service with an anti-Zeppelin fighter that was also capable of long-range reconnaissance and light bombing.

The Avro Pike was a large, three-bay biplane of conventional layout driven by two pusher propellers. Three open cockpits were provided, the centre one for the pilot, and gunners fore and aft of him. The Admiralty evaluated the type, but rejected it. Avro then built a second prototype, changing the original's Sunbeam engines for Green E.6 engines instead and designating it the 523A.

The Admiralty evaluated this in November 1916, but found that the type was now obsolete and did not place an order. The two prototypes flew as testbeds with Avro for the remainder of the war.

Avro 523 Pike
  • Role: Multi-role military aircraft
  • National Origin: Britian
  • Manufacturer: A.V. Roe and Company
  • Designed by: Roy Chadwick
  • First flight: May 1916
  • Evaluation Test: November 1916
  • Primary user: Avro
  • Number built: 2
  • Status: Prototype
  • Powerplant: 2 × Sunbeam Nubian, 160 hp (121 kW) each each
  • Wingspan: 60 ft in (18.30 m)
  • Wing area: 815 ft² (75.7 m²)
  • Length: 39 ft 1 in (11.92 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 8 in (3.56 m)
  • Empty weight: 4,000 lb (1,814 kg)
  • Gross weight: 6,064 lb (2,756 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 97 mph (156 km/h)
  • Endurance: 7 hours
  • Rate of climb: 526 ft/min (2.67 m/s)
  • Climb to: 5,000 ft (1,524 m) in 9 min 30 sec
  • Crew: three, pilot and two gunners
  • Armament:
    • 1 × flexible .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun in nose
    • 1 × flexible .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun in rear fuselage
    • 2 × 112 lb (51 kg) bombs carried in internal bay

References

  1. Avro Pike. (2010, November 10). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:46, November 27, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_Pike&oldid=395871349
  2. Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908. London: Putnam, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  3. Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1912. London: Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions, 1989, p. 93.
  5. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing.

Avro 528

Avro 528 - 1916
Avro 528 - 1916

The Avro 528 was an unsuccessful large span single engined biplane built to an Admiralty contract in 1916. It carried a crew of two; only one was built.

Very little is known about the Avro 528 apart from a photograph and a general arrangement diagram. It was a two seat single engined biplane ordered by the Admiralty in 1915, and not even the task for which it was intended is recorded. It had some similarities with the Avro 519 (a single seater intended for the RFC) and the twin seat 519A, built for the RNAS, though neither of these were armed and both had 150 hp Sunbeam Nubian engines rather than the 225 hp Sunbeam of the 528. Both the 519s and the 528 had some shared features with the Naval Avro 504.
[Read more]

Avro 528
  • Role: Two seat single engined biplane
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • First flight: September 9, 1916
  • Retired: 1917
  • Status: Prototype
  • Number built: 1
  • Powerplant: 1 × Sunbeam, 250 hp (187 kW)
  • Wingspan: 65 ft 0 in (19.82 m)
  • Length: 33 ft 8 in (10.26 m)
  • Gross weight: 5,509 lb (2,504 kg)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis machine gun in rear cockpit
    • provision for bombs in nacelles under lower wing

References

  1. Avro 528. (2010, May 20). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:39, December 9, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_528&oldid=363265695
  2. Jackson, A.J. (1965). Avro Aircraft since 1908, pp. 73-4, pp. 90-1. London:Putnam Publishing.
  3. Jackson, A.J. (1990). Avro Aircraft since 1908 (Second ed.), p. 150-151. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  4. Mason, Francis K. (1994). The British Bomber since 1914, p. 70. London: Putnam. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.

Avro Aircraft 1917

Avro 529

Avro 529 - 1917
Avro 529 - 1917

The Avro 529 was a twin-engined biplane long-range bomber of the First World War. Two prototypes were built but no production ensued.

The Avro 529 was Avro's second twin-engined aircraft and their second attempt at a heavy bomber. Their first in both categories was the Pike, developed in early 1916 to Royal Flying Corps (RFC) guidelines for a short-range bomber. The Pike arrived too late to secure orders from the RFC who would order the Handley-Page O/100 and for the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) who had ordered the Short Bomber. Nonetheless, after trials of the Pike, the Admiralty ordered two prototypes of an enlarged Pike for a long range bomber role. This was the Type 529.

Like the Pike, it was a large twin-engined biplane of the then-standard wood and canvas construction. It had three-bay wings without sweepback, dihedral or stagger, partly to facilitate wing folding. The vertical tail was different to that of the Pike: it had a small, roughly triangular fin and a rudder with a round balance surface above the fin, a reminder of Avro's "comma" rudder form.
[Read more]

Avro 529A
  • Role: Long range bomber
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: A.V. Roe & Co.
  • First flight: April 1917
  • Number built: 2
  • Developed from: Avro Pike
  • Status: Prototype
  • Powerplant: 2 × B.H.P. (Galloway built), 230 hp (170 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 64 ft 1 in (19.53 m)
  • Wing area: 910 ft² (84.54 m²)
  • Length: 39 ft 8 in (12.09 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 0 in (3.96 m)
  • Empty weight: 4,361 lb (1,978 kg)
  • Gross weight: 7,135 lb (3,236 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 116 mph (187 km/h)
  • Endurance: 5.25 hours
  • Service ceiling: 17,500 ft (5,335 m)
  • Rate of climb: to 5,000 ft (1525 m) 715 ft/min (3.6 m/s)
  • Crew: 3
  • Armament:
    • 20 × 50 lb (23 kg) bombs
    • 1 × trainable 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun on Scarff ring in nose
    • 1 × trainable 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun on Scarff ring in dorsal position

References

  1. Avro 529. (2011, January 21). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 06:09, January 28, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_529&oldid=409163298
  2. Jackson, A.J. "Avro Aircraft since 1908". 1965, pp. 92-94. London: Putnam Publishing.

Avro 530

Avro 530 - 1917
Avro 530

Of relatively clean aerodynamic design by contemporary standards and featuring a ducted propeller spinner, the Avro 530 two-seat fighter was designed in 1916 to compete with the Bristol F.2A, but the first prototype was not flown until July 1917. Powered by a 200hp Hispano- Suiza 8Bd eight-cylinder water-cooled engine, the Avro 530 was of wooden construction with fabric skinning, and mounted an armament of a single fixed and synchronised 7.7mm Vickers gun, a Lewis gun of similar calibre being mounted on a Scarff ring in the rear cockpit. Although performance of the Avro 530 proved to be good, it did not improve sufficiently on that of the Bristol F.2A to warrant production orders. Furthermore, priority in the supply of the Hispano- Suiza engine was being given to the S.E.5a. During 1918, one of the two Avro 530 prototypes was flown with a 200hp Sunbeam Arab engine, revised undercarriage, an extended tail fin and flapless wings of new section with long-span ailerons, but development was subsequently

Avro 530
  • Role: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • First flight: 1917
  • Number built: 2
  • Status: Prototype
  • Wingspan: 36 ft 0 in (10.97 m)
  • Wing area: 325.5 ft² (30.23m²)
  • Length: 28 ft 6 in (8.69 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 7 in (2.92 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,695 lb (769 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2,680 lb (1,216 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1× Hispano-Suiza 8Bd eight cylinder water-cooled engine, 200 hp (149 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 114 mph (183 km/h) 102 mph (164 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
  • Time to 10,000 ft: 15 minutes
  • Endurance: 4 hours
  • Crew: One
  • Armament:
  • Guns:
    • Forward: 1 × engine mounted .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun
    • Rear: 1 × rear mounted .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun

References

  1. Avro 530. (2010, September 15). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:53, November 18, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_530&oldid=384956362
  2. Avro 530 1917 The Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 00:55, November 18, 2010, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/avro-530.php
  3. William Green and Gordon Swanborough. The Complete Book of Fighters. Colour Library Direct, Godalming, UK: 1994. ISBN 1-85833-777-1.

Avro Aircraft 1918

Avro 531 Spider

Avro 531 Spider - 1918
Avro 531 Spider

The Avro 531 Spider was a British fighter aircraft built by Avro during the First World War. It did not proceed past the prototype stage.

An unsponsored private-venture single-seat fighter designed by Roy Chadwick and flown for the first time in April 1918, the Spider made use of a number of Avro 504 components and had a fabric-covered wooden structure with a system of Warren-girder steel-tube interplane struts.

The upper wing was mounted close to the fuselage and directly above the cockpit. In its original form, the Spider was powered by a 110hp Le Rhone 9J nine-cylinder rotary engine, and proved to possess exceptional manoeuvrability, but overall performance was not sufficiently in advance of the contemporary Sopwith Camel to warrant quantity production. Armament comprised one fixed synchronised 7.7mm Vickers machine gun, and a 130hp Clerget 9B rotary was later fitted.
[Read more]

Avro 531 Spider and 538
  • Role: Fighter
  • National Origin: Britian
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • Designer: Roy Chadwick
  • First flight: April 1918
  • Status: Prototype
  • Number built: 2
  • Powerplant: 1 × Clerget rotary, 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Wingspan: 28 ft 6 in (8.69 m)
  • Wing area: 189 ft² (17.6 m²)
  • Length: 20 ft 6 in (6.25 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 10 in (2.39 m)
  • Empty weight: 963 lb (437 kg)
  • Gross weight: 1,517 lb (688 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 120 mph (193 km/h)
  • Range: 250 miles (400 km)
  • Service ceiling: 19,000 ft (5,970 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,250 ft/min (6.4 m/s)
  • Crew: one pilot
  • Armament: 1 × fixed, forward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun

References

  1. Avro 531 Spider. (2010, September 15). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:46, November 18, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_531_Spider&oldid=384956305
  2. Avro 531 Spider 1918 Back to the Virtual Aircraft Museum http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/avro_spider.php
  3. Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions, 1989, p. 93.
  5. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing, File 889, Sheet 94.