Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft of 1915

Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3

Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3 - 1915
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3

The Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3 was a British two-seat general-purpose biplane built by Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft.

The Dutch aircraft designer Frederick Koolhoven joined Armstrong Whitworth in 1914. He designed a series of aircraft that had his initials in their designation. The F.K.3 followed the basic layout of the Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c, which Armstrong Whitworth were building for the Royal Flying Corps. It was designed as an improvement, with a simplified structure that was easier to build. The prototype, first flown by Norman Spratt was powered by a 70 hp (52 kW) air-cooled Renault 70 hp V-8. This aircraft differed from the B.E.2 in eliminating welded joints and complex metal components in the structure, and having greater dihedral on the upper wing. It retained the seating layout of the B.E.2, with separate cockpits for the pilot and observer, with the latter in front. An initial batch of seven aircraft to this standard, sometimes referred to as the F.K.2 were built.
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Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3
  • Role: General purpose / Trainer aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft
  • Designed by: Frederick Koolhoven
  • First flight: 1915
  • Primary user: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number built: c.500
  • Developed from: Royal Aircraft Factory BE.2
  • Powerplant: 1 × RAF 1A inline piston engine, 90 hp (67 kW)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft (12.19 m)
  • Wing area: 442 ft² (41.1 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft (8.84 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 11 in (3.63 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,386 lb (629 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 2,056 lb (983 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 77 kn (89 mph, 143 km/h) at sea level
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 ft (3,660 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 5,000 ft in 19 min
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun in rear cockpit
    • or
    • up to 112 lb (51 kg) bombs (if flown as single seater)

References

  1. Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3. (2011, January 21). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:53, January 29, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armstrong_Whitworth_F.K.3&oldid=409160749
  2. Bruce, J. M. (1982). The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps, pp. 9093 (Military Wing). London: Putnam. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  3. Mason, Francis K. (1994). The British Bomber since 1914, p.41. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
  4. Tapper, Oliver (1973). Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913, pp. 52-8, pp. 367. London: Putnam Publishing. ISBN 0 370 10004 2.

Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft of 1916

Armstrong Whitworth F.K.5 and F.K.6

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.6 - 1916
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.6

The Armstrong Whitworth F.K.5 and F.K.6 were experimental triplanes built as escort fighters by Armstrong Whitworth during the First World War. They carried two gunners in nacelles mounted on the center wing. One example of each type was built, with no further development or production following.
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Armstrong Whitworth F.K.6
  • Role: Experimental Escort fighter
  • National Origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Armstrong Whitworth
  • Designed by: Frederick Koolhoven
  • First Flight: 1916
  • Project Terminated: 1916
  • Number Built: 2
  • Status: Prototype
  • Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Eagle water-cooled V-12 engine, 250 hp (187 kW)
  • Wingspan: 62 ft in (18.90 m)
  • Length: 37 ft 0¾ in (11.30 m)
  • Height: 17 ft in (5.18 m)
  • Maximum Speed: 99 mph (160 km/h)
  • Crew: 3
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns, one in each nacelle

References

  1. Armstrong Whitworth F.K.6. (2010, September 15). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17:11, October 30, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armstrong_Whitworth_F.K.6&oldid=385009811
  2. Armstrong Whitworth F.K.6 1916 Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 17:11, October 30, 2010, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/arm_fk-6.php
  3. Koolhoven Aeroplanes Foundation http://www.koolhoven.com/history/airplanes/aw/
  4. Bruce, J.M. "British Aeroplanes 1914-18". London:Putnam, 1957.
  5. Bruce, J.M. "War Planes of the First World War: Volume One Fighters". London:Macdonald, 1965.
  6. Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. "The Complete Book of Fighters". New York:Smithmark, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  7. Lewis, Peter. "The British Fighter since 1912". London:Putnam, Fourth edition, 1979. ISBN 0 370 10049 2.
  8. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland, USA:Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7
  9. Tapper, Oliver. "Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1914". London:Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0 85177 826 7.

Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.8 - 1916
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8

The aircraft, originally designated the F.K.7, was designed by Dutch aircraft designer Frederick Koolhoven as a replacement for the Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c and the Armstrong Whitworth F.K.3. It was a sturdier aircraft than the F.K.3, with a larger fuselage and wings and was powered by a 160 hp (110 kW) Beardmore water-cooled engine. The undercarriage used oleo shock absorbers. The undercarriage was unable to withstand rough use on the frontline airfields. The observer was equipped with a Scarff ring mounting for a 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis machine gun. No armament was initially provided for the pilot. The rudder featured a long, pointed horn-balance.

In service the F.K.8s (nicknamed the "Big Ack") proved to be effective and dependable. It proved to be fairly successful in performing reconnaissance, artillery spotting, ground-attack, contact-patrol and day and night bombing missions. It was easier to fly than the R.E.8 and was sturdier but its performance was even more mediocre and it shared the inherent stability that plagued many Royal Aircraft Factory types.
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Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8
  • Role: Bomber/Reconnaissance aircraft
  • First Flight: May 1916
  • Designed By: Frederick Koolhoven
  • Manufacturer: Armstrong Whitworth
  • Developed From: Armstrong Whitworth F.K.7
  • Primary Users: Royal Flying Corps
  • Powerplant: 1× Beardmore 120 hp 6-cylinder inline piston engine, 160 hp (112 kW)
  • Wingspan: 43 ft 6 in (13.26 m)
  • Wing Area: 540 ft² (50.17 m²)
  • Length: 31 ft 5 in (9.58 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 11 in (3.33 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,916 lb (869 kg)
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 2,811 lb (1,275 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 83 kn (95 mph, 153 km/h) at sea level
  • Service Ceiling: 13,000 ft (3,960 m)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × fixed, forward firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers machine gun
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × flexibly mounted 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun
    • Bombs: up to 260 lb (118 kg) bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Military Wing). London: Putnam and Company, 1982. ISBN 0-370-30084-X.
  3. Mason, Francis K. "The British Bomber Since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  4. Munson, Kenneth. "Aircraft of World War I". London: Ian Allan, 1967. ISBN 0-7110-0356-4.
  5. Tapper, Oliver. "Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913". London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-826-7.
  6. Taylor, John W.R. "Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8." Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.10

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.10 - 1916
Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.10

The Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.10 was a two-seat quadruplane built for fighting and bombing. Like its predecessor, the F.K.9, it was a poor performer with serious design flaws. Of the fifty aircraft ordered by the Royal Naval Air Service, only eight were delivered.

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.10
  • Type: Fighter/Bomber
  • Country: Great Britain
  • First Introduced: 1916
  • Number Built: 8
  • Powerplant: Clerget 9B, 9 cylinder air cooled, 95kW
  • Wing Span: 8.48 m
  • Length: 6.78 m
  • Height: 3.5 m
  • Empty Weight: 560 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 916 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 153 km/h
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm)Vickers machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Armstrong Whitworth F.K.10, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armstrong_Whitworth_F.K.10"
  2. Bruce, J.M. (1965). Warplanes of the First World War, Fighters Volume One, Great Britain. London: Macdonald.
  3. Green, W.; Swanborough, G. (1994). The Complete Book of Fighters. New York: Smithmark, p.25. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  4. Mason, Francis K (1992). The British Fighter since 1912. Annapolis, Ma: Naval Institute Press., p.11-14 ISBN 1-55750-082-7.

Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft of 1918

Armstrong Whitworth Ara

Armstrong-Whitworth Ara - 1918
Armstrong Whitworth Ara

The Armstrong Whitworth Ara was an unsuccessful British single-seat biplane fighter aircraft of the First World War built by Armstrong Whitworth.

In early 1918, the British Air Ministry wrote RAF Specification Type 1 for a single-seat fighter to replace the Sopwith Snipe. The specified engine was the ABC Dragonfly, a new radial engine which had been ordered into productioon based on promised performance before any testing had been carried out. To meet this specification, Armstong Whitworth's chief designer, Fred Murphy, produced the Armstrong Whitworth Ara, three prototypes being ordered.
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Armstrong Whitworth Ara
  • Role: Fighter
  • National origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Armstrong-Whitworth
  • Designed by: Fred Murphy
  • First flight: 1919
  • Status: Prototype
  • Number built: 2
  • Powerplant: 1 × ABC Dragonfly air cooled radial engine, 320 hp (239 kW)
  • Wingspan: 27 ft 5 in (8.36 m)
  • Wing area: 257 ft² (23.9 m²)
  • Length: 20 ft 3 in (6.17 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 10 in (2.39 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,320 lb (600 kg)
  • Gross weight: 1,930 lb (877 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 150 mph (242 km/h)
  • Endurance: 3¼ hours
  • Service ceiling: 28,000 ft (8,500 m)
  • Rate of climb: 2,200 ft/min (11 m/s)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns

References

  1. "Armstrong Whitworth Ara". (2010, September 1). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:48, November 27, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armstrong_Whitworth_Ara&oldid=382240377
  2. Bruce, J.M. (1965). "War Planes of the First World War:Volume One: Fighters", p.20, p22. London: Macdonald.
  3. Mason, Francis K. (1992). "British Fighters since 1912", p.148. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1990). "Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I". London: Studio Editions. p.48-49.

Armstrong Whitworth Armadillo

Armstrong-Whitworth Armadillo
Armstrong Whitworth Armadillo

The Armstrong Whitworth Armadillo was a British single-seat biplane fighter aircraft built by Armstrong Whitworth. The aircraft was a two-bay biplane with a square section fuselage. The engine in the nose was enclosed by a circular cowl with a deep hump above the cowl housing twin 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns.

The Armadillo was designed in early 1918 by Fred Murphy, who had succeeded F Koolhoven as chief designer to Armstrong Whitworth. The F.M.4 Armadillo was developed as a private venture single-seat fighter. The aircraft was powered by a Bentley BR2 rotary engine. The development program began construction of two prototypes.

By the time the Armadillo appeared, in summer 1918, the Sopwith Snipe had already entered large scale production. The Snipe's performance avantage wone out and the Armadillo was abandoned. The project was canceled leaving the second prototype uncompleted.

Armstrong Whitworth Armadillo
  • Type: Fighter
  • National Origin: British
  • Manufacturer: Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft
  • Designed By: F. Murphy
  • First Flight: 1918
  • Status: Prototype
  • Number Built: 1
  • Powerplant: 1 × Bentley Bentley B.R.2 nine-cylinder rotary engine, 230 hp (172 kW)
  • Wingspan: 27 ft 9 in (8.46 m)
  • Wing Area: 232 ft² (21.6 m²)
  • Length: 18 ft 10 in (5.74 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 10 in (2.39 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,250 lb (568 kg)
  • Gross Weight: 1,860 lb (845 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 125 mph (201 km/h)
  • Endurance: 2 hours 45 min
  • Service Ceiling: 24,000 ft (7,300 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 1,500 [3] ft/min (7.8 m/s)
  • Climb to: 10,000 ft 6 min 30 sec
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns

References

  1. Armstrong Whitworth Armadillo. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:19, July 4, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armstrong_Whitworth_Armadillo&oldid=360031868
  2. Bruce, J.M. (1965). War Planes of the First World War:Volume One: Fighters. London: Macdonald, p.19.
  3. Mason, Francis K. (1992). British Fighters since 1912. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, p.138-139. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1990). Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I. London: Studio Editions. p. 49.