Airco Aircraft 1915

Airco DH.1

Airco D.H.1
Airco D.H.1 - 1915

The Airco DH.1 was an early military biplane flown by Britain's Royal Flying Corps during World War I.

Geoffrey de Havilland was one of the pioneering designers at the Royal Aircraft Factory and was partially or wholly responsible for most pre-war "Factory" designs. When he left to become chief designer at The Aircraft Manufacturing Company (Airco) in 1914, his first design was strongly reminiscent of the F.E.2b, one of his last designs for the Royal Aircraft Factory. Like the F.E.2, the DH.1 was of pusher configuration, the aircraft accommodating its pilot and observer in two open tandem cockpits in the nose, the observer's cockpit stepped down below the pilot's and equipped with a machine gun. The wings were of typical fabric-covered, two-bay, unstaggered, unswept, equal span design, while the stabiliser and rudder were carried on the end of a long, open-framework boom.
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Airco DH.1
  • Type: Two seat fighter / General purpose aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Airco
  • Designed by: Geoffrey de Havilland
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Introduced: 1915
  • Retired: 1918
  • Primary User: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number Built: aproximately 170
  • Powerplant: 1× Renault, Inline air-cooled, upright, 90 degree, V-8 piston engine 70 hp (50 kW)
  • Wingspan: 41 ft 0 in (12.50 m)
  • Wing Area: 426 ft² (39.6 m²)
  • Length: 28 ft 11.625 in (8.83 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 4 in (3.46 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,356 lb (616 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,044 lb (927 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 80 mph (70 kn, 130 km/h)
  • Rate of Climb: 350 ft/min (1.7 m/s)
  • Crew: two (pilot and observer)
  • Armament: 1 × trainable 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun for observer

References

  1. From Wikipedia Airco DH.1, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airco_DH.1"
  2. Cheesman, E.F. (ed.) "Reconnaissance & Bomber Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth, UK: Harleyford, 1962.
  3. Grey, C.G. "Jane's all the world's aircraft 1919" (reprint). New York: Arco Publishing Company, 1969. ISBN 0-0001-890-1.
  4. Jackson, A.J. "De Havilland Aircraft since 1909". London:Putnam, Third edition, 1987. ISBN 0 85177 802 X.
  5. Taylor, Michael J.H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation", 1989 edition. London: Studio Editions, 1989, p. 45. ISBN 0-51710-316-8.

Airco De Havilland D.H.2

Airco D.H.2
Airco De Havilland D.H.2 - 1915

The D.H.2 biplane was Geoffrey de Havilland's second design for the Aircraft Manufacturing Company. This highly successful pusher had good maneuverability with an excellent rate of climb. Mounting the engine to the rear of the fuselage permitted the use of a fixed, forward-firing machine gun before the advent of the synchronous machine gun.

Superior to the Fokker E.III, the D.H.2 helped end the "Fokker Scourge." Well past its prime and almost two years after its introduction, some squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps were still equipped with D.H.2s.

Airco De Havilland D.H.2
  • Type: Fighter
  • Entered Service: 1915
  • Manufacturer:Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
  • Number Built: 400
  • Powerplant: Gnome Monosoupape, 9 cylinder, rotary, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wing Span: 28 ft 3 in (8.61m)
  • Length: 25 ft 2.5 in (7.68m)
  • Height: 9 ft 6.5 in (2.91m)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,441lb (653.6kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 93 mph (150 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 14,000 ft (4,267 m)
  • Endurance: 2 hrs 45 mins
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Airco DH.2, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airco_DH.2"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "Warplanes of the First World War - Fighters Volume One". London: MacDonald & Co., 1965.
  3. >Cheesman, E.F., ed. "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Herts, UK: Harleyford, 1960.
  4. Goulding, James. Interceptor: RAF "Single Seat Multi-Gun Fighters". London: Ian Allen Ltd., 1986. ISBN 0-7110-1583-X.
  5. Jackson, A.J. "De Havilland Aircraft since 1909". London: Putnam, Third edition, 1987. ISBN 0 85177 802 X.
  6. Mason, Francis K. "The British Fighter since 1912". Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
  7. Raleigh, Walter. "The War In The Air: Being the Story of the part played in the Great War by the Royal Air Force, Vol I". Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, First edition 1922, 2002 (reprint). ISBN 978-1843424123.
  8. Sharpe, Michael. "Biplanes, Triplanes, and Seaplanes". London: Friedman/Fairfax Books, 2000. ISBN 1-58663-300-7.

Airco Aircraft 1916

Airco DH.3

Airco D.H.3 - 1916
Airco D.H.3 - 1916

The Airco DH.3 was a British bomber aircraft of the First World War. The DH.3 was designed by Geoffrey de Havilland, Chief Designer at the Aircraft Manufacturing Company in 1916 as a long range day bomber. It was a large biplane with wide-span three-bay wings, slender fuselage, and a curved rudder. It was powered by two 120 hp (89 kW) Beardmore engines mounted as pushers between the wings. In addition to tail skid landing gear, two wheels were placed beneath the nose to prevent bumping.

A second prototype, designated D.H.3A was built with more powerful (160 hp/119 kW) Beardmore engines, and a production order for 50 placed by the War Office. This order was cancelled however before any could be completed, because Strategic bombing was not thought to be worthwhile and twin engined bombers were claimed to be impracticable. The two prototypes were scrapped in 1917.

The DH.10 was a development of the DH.3 which first flew in March 1918 but was too late to see squadron service during the war.

Airco DH.3
  • Role: Biplane bomber
  • Manufacturer: Airco
  • Designed by: Geoffrey de Havilland
  • Introduced: 1916
  • Retired: 1917
  • Status: Prototype only
  • Number built: 2
  • Powerplant: 2 × Beardmore 120 hp inline piston engine, 120 hp (89 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 60 ft 10 in (18.54 m)
  • Wing area: 793 ft² (73.67 m²)
  • Length: 36 ft 10 in (11.23 m)
  • Height: 14 ft 6 in (4.42 m)
  • Empty weight: 3,980 lb (1,805 kg)
  • Gross weight: 5,810 lb (2,635 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 95 mph (153 km/h)
  • Range: 700 miles (1,130 km)
  • Endurance: 8 hours
  • Rate of climb: 550 ft/min (2.8 m/s)
  • Crew: 3
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2 × flexibly mounted .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns
    • Bombs: up to 680 lb (308 kg) bombs

References

  1. Airco DH.3. (2011, January 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:29, February 13, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Airco_DH.3&oldid=409267462
  2. Donald, David, ed. The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada: Prospero Books, 1997, p. 118. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  3. Jackson, A.J. De Havilland Aircraft since 1909. London:Putnam, Third edition, 1987. ISBN 0 85177 802 X.
  4. Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914. London:Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.

Airco Aircraft 1917

Airco D.H.4

Airco D.H.4 - 1918
Airco D.H.4 - 1917

Designed in 1916 by Geoffrey de Havilland, the D.H.4 was the only British design manufactured by the Americans. It was easily identified by its rectangular fuselage and deep frontal radiator. Versatile, heavily armed and equipped with a powerful twelve cylinder engine, this biplane daylight bomber was fast.

Sometimes called the "Flaming Coffin," its huge fuel tank was dangerously positioned between the pilot and observer, hindering communication. Produced in vast numbers, 6295, of which 4846 were built in the United States, many D.H.4s were modified for civilian air service after the war.
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Airco D.H.4
  • Type: Reconaissance/Tactical Bomber
  • Country: Great Britain
  • Manufacturer: Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
  • Entered Service: March 1917
  • Number Built: 6,295
  • Engine(s):
    • Rolls-Royce Eagle VII, water cooled 12 cylinder, 375 hp
    • Liberty 12, water cooled 12 cylinder, 395 to 421 hp (USA)
    • Wing Span: 42 ft 4.5 in 12.92 m
  • Length: 30 ft 8 in (9.35 m)
  • Height: 11 ft (3.35 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,472 lb (1,575 kg)
  • Speed: 143 mph {230 km/h) sea level
  • Service Ceiling: 23,500 ft (7,163 m)
  • Endurance: 6 hr 45 min
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2-4 machine guns
    • Bombs: 460 lb (208.7 kg) of bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Airco DH.4, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airco_DH.4"
  2. Angelucci, Enzo, (editor). "World Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft". London: Jane's, 1991. ISBN 0-7106-0148-4.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The De Havilland D.H.4." Flight, 17 October 1952, pp. 506-510.
  4. Bowers, Peter M. "Boeing Aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam, Second edition, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.
  5. Jackson, A.J. British "Civil Aircraft since 1919: Volume 2". London:Putnam, Second edition, 1973. ISBN 0-370-10010-7.
  6. Jackson, A.J. "De Havilland Aircraft since 1909". London: Putnam, Third edition, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-802-X.
  7. Mason, Francis K. "The British Bomber since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  8. Maurer, Maurer (editor). "The U.S. Air Service in World War I: Volume IV" Postwar Review. Washington, DC: The Office of Air Force History Headquarters USAF, 1979.
  9. Sturtivant, Ray and Gordon Page. "The D.H.4/D.H.9 File". Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 2000. ISBN 0-85130-274-2.
  10. Swanborough, F.G. and Peter M. Bowers." United States Military Aircraft since 1909". London: Putnam, 1963.
  11. Swanborough Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. "United States Naval Aircraft since 1911". London: Putnam, Second edition, 1976. ISBN 0-370-10054-9.
  12. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London: Putnam, Fourth edition, 1978. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  13. >"United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB", Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.
  14. Williams, George K. "Biplanes and Bombsights: British Bombing in World War I". Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, 1999. ISBN 1-41020-012-4.

Airco D.H.5

Airco D.H.5
Airco D.H.5 - 1917

Unlike other biplane fighters of its day, the Airco D.H.5 featured an unusual wing configuration. By positioning the upper wing toward the rear of the cockpit, designer Geoffrey de Havilland was able to improve the pilot's field of vision. Despite this improvement, at high altitude the D.H.5 was a poor performer due to its underpowered engine. By the end of 1917, it was removed from combat and used as a trainer.

Airco D.H.5
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
  • Entered Service: May 1917
  • Powerplant: Le Rhône, Reciprocating air cooled rotary, 110 hp. (82 kW)
  • Wing Span: 25 ft 8 in (7.82 m)
  • Length: 22 ft 9 in (6.94 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 1 in (2.77 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,010 lb (458 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,492 lb (677 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 102 mph/10,000 ft (164 km/h at 3,000 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 16,000 ft (4,877 m)
  • Endurance: 2 hr 45 min
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Airco DH-5, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airco_DH.5"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "Warplanes of the First World War Vol. 1". London: MacDonald, 1965, p. 128-132.
  3. Jackson, A.J. "De Havilland Aircraft since 1915". London: Putnam, 1962.
  4. Lamberton, W.M. et al. "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Lethworth, Herts, UK: Harleyford, 1960, p. 42-43.
  5. Taylor, John W.R. "D.H.5;. Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.

Airco DH.9

Airco D.H.9 - 1917
Airco D.H.9 - 1917

The Airco DH.9 (from de Havilland 9) - also known after 1920 as the de Havilland DH.9 - was a British bomber used in the First World War. A single-engined biplane, it was a development of Airco's earlier, highly successful DH.4 and was ordered in very large numbers for Britain's Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force.

Its engine was unreliable, and failed to provide the expected power, giving the DH.9 poorer performance than the aircraft it was meant to replace, and resulting in heavy losses, particularly over the Western Front. The subsequently-developed DH.9A had a more powerful and reliable American Liberty L-12 engine.

The DH.9 was designed by de Havilland for the Aircraft Manufacturing Company in 1916 as a successor to the DH.4. It used the wings and tail unit of the DH.4 but had a new fuselage. This enabled the pilot to sit closer to the gunner/observer and away from the engine and fuel tank. The other major change from the DH.4 was the choice of the promising new BHP/Galloway Adriatic engine, which was predicted to produce 300 hp (224 kW) and so give the new aircraft an adequate performance to match enemy fighters.
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Airco D.H.9
  • Type: Reconaissance/Tactical Bomber
  • Manufacturer: Airco
  • Designed by: Geoffrey de Havilland
  • First flight: July 1917
  • Introduced: 1917
  • Retired: 1920
  • Primary users: Royal Air Force, RNAS, RFC.
  • Number Built: 4091
  • Variants: DH.9A, DH.9C, Westland Walrus
  • Length: 30 ft 5 in (9.27 m)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft 4½ in (19.92 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 3½ in (3.44 m)
  • Wing area: 434 ft² (40.3 m²)
  • Empty weight: 2,360 lb (1,014 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 3,790 lb (1,723 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Puma piston engine, 230 hp (172 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 98 kn (113 mph, 182 km/h)
  • Endurance: 4½ hours
  • Service ceiling: 15,500 ft (4,730 m)
  • Climb to: 10,000 ft 18 min 30 sec
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns:
    • 1 × Forward firing Vickers machine gun
    • 1 or 2 × Rear Lewis guns on scarff ring
    • Bombs: Up to 460 lb (209 kg) bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Airco DH.9, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airco_DH.9"
  2. Barnes, C.H. "Handley Page Aircraft since 1907". London:Putnam, 1976. ISBN 0 370 00030 7.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The De Havilland D.H.9 Historic Military Aircraft No. 12, Part I". Flight, 6 April 1956. Pages 385-388, 392.
  4. >Bruce, J.M. "The De Havilland D.H.9 Historic Military Aircraft No. 12, Part II". Flight, 13 April 1956. Pages 422-426.
  5. Gerdessen, F. "Estonian Air Power 1918 - 1945". Air Enthusiast No 18, April - July 1982. Pages 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  6. Jackson, A.J. "British Civil Aircraft since 1919 Volume 2". London:Putnam, Second edition 1973. ISBN 0 370 10010 7.
  7. Jackson, A.J. "De Havilland Aircraft since 1909". London Putnam, Third edition 1987. ISBN 0 85177 802 X.
  8. Mason, Francis K. "The British Bomber Since 1914". London Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  9. Winchester, Jim, ed. "Bombers of the 20th Century". London Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-84037-386-5.

Airco Aircraft 1918

Airco DH.10

Airco D.H.10 Amiens - 1918
Airco D.H.10 Amiens - 1918

The Airco DH.10 Amiens was a British twin-engined medium bomber designed and built towards the end of the First World War. It served briefly with the RAF postwar.

The DH.10 was designed by Geoffrey de Havilland to meet the requirements of Air Board Specification A.2.b for a single- or twin-engined day bomber. It was a development of the earlier Airco DH.3 bomber, which had flown in 1916, but had been rejected by the War Office because of a belief that strategic bombing would be ineffective and that twin engines were impracticable.

The first prototype flew on 4 March 1918, powered by two 230 hp (186 kW) Siddeley Puma engines mounted as pushers. When evaluated by the RAF, the performance of this prototype was well below expectation, reaching only 90 mph (145 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4,572 m) with the required bomb load. Owing to this poor performance, the DH.10 was redesigned with more powerful engines in a tractor installation.

The second prototype, known as the Amiens Mark II was powered by two 360 hp (268 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII engines and first flew in April 1918, showing greatly superior performance and proving to be faster than the DH.9A while carrying twice the bomb load. While shortages of the Eagle meant that the Amiens Mark II could not be put into production, it proved the design for the definitive aircraft, the Amiens Mark III, which was powered by the more readily available 395 hp (295 kW) Liberty 12 from America, as was the DH.9A. Following successful evaluation, large orders were placed, with a total of 1,291 ordered.
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DH.10 Amiens IIIA
  • Role: Medium Bomber
  • National Origin: United Kingdom
  • Manufacturer: Airco
  • Designed by: Geoffrey de Havilland
  • First flight: 4 March 1918
  • Introduced: November 1918
  • Retired: 1923
  • Primary user: Royal Air Force
  • Number built: 258
  • Powerplant: 2 × Liberty 12A V-12 piston, 400 hp (298 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 65 ft 6 in (19.97 m)
  • Wing area: 837 ft² (77.8 m²)
  • Length: 39 ft 7.33 in (12.08 m)
  • Height: 14 ft 6 in (4.42 m)
  • Empty weight: 5,750 lb (2,614 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 8,500 lb (3,863 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 9,060 lb (4,118 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 114 kn (131 mph, 211 km/h) at sea level
  • Service ceiling: 19,000 ft (5,800 m)
  • Wing loading: 10.2 lb/ft² (49.7 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.094 hp/lb (0.15 kW/kg)
  • Climb to 10,000 ft: 11 min
  • Endurance: 6 hours
  • Crew: Three
  • Armament:
  • Guns: 1 or 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns on Scarff rings at both nose and midships gunners cockpits
  • Bombs: Up to 920 lb (417 kg) bombs carried internally

References

  1. Airco DH.10. (2011, February 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20:58, February 12, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Airco_DH.10&oldid=412210736
  2. Airco DH.10. Virtual Aircraft Museum http://www.luftfahrtmuseum.com/htmi/itf/dh10a.htm
  3. British Aircraft Directory http://www.britishaircraft.co.uk/aircraftpage.php?ID=669
  4. Jackson, A. J. British Civil Aircraft Since 1919, Volume 2. London: Putnam, Second Edition, 1973. ISBN 0 370 10010 7.
  5. Jackson A. J. De Havilland Aircraft since 1909. London:Putnam, 1987. ISBN 0 85177 802 X.
  6. Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  7. Thetford, Owen. Aircraft of the Royal Air Force 1918-57, 1st edition. London: Putnam, 1957.